Which is incorrect with regards to the fluid and its content?
|A.||Normal Saline – 150mmol Na+/L|
|B.||Hartmans – 131mmol Na+/L|
|D.||D5W- 50gm glucose/L|
|E.||Hartmans- 5 mmol K+/L|
|Answer» C. Hartmans –131mmolCl-/L|
Which is not a possibility in the ECG of a pt with hypokalemia?
|A.||prolong PR interval|
|B.||prominent U waves|
|C.||T wave flattening|
|D.||Prolonged QT interval|
|E.||T wave inversion in praecordial leads|
|Answer» D. Prolonged QT interval|
Which is not a cause of hypokalemia?
|Answer» E. digoxin OD|
Which of the drugs below are not associated with hypokalemia?
|Answer» D. amiloride|
which of the following is not a symptom of hypokalemia?
|Answer» E. seizures|
Which contains the largest amount of K+?
|A.||two Slow K tablets|
|B.||2 chlorvescent tablets|
|C.||15ml of Kayciel|
|D.||one gram iintravenous KCL|
|Answer» B. 2 chlorvescent tablets|
A rise in the pH by 0.1 causes what decrease in serum K+?
|Answer» C. 0.5mEq/L|
Which does not shift K+ into cells?
|Answer» E. resonium|
What is seen earliest in an ECG of hyperkalemia?
|B.||Peak T wave|
|C.||Flattened p wave|
|Answer» B. Peak T wave|
To diagnose SIADH as the cause of hyponatremia which must not be present?
|C.||no cardiac/renal/ hepatic failure|
|D.||urine osmolality >100ml/kg|
|E.||urinary Na >20 mmol/ml|
|Answer» A. hypovolemia|
which statement is incorrect?
|A.||hyperlipidaemia can cause an artificially low Na+|
|B.||if the hyponatremia is known to be of less than 48 hours duration it can be corrected quickly|
|C.||in chronic hyponatremia, the Na+ should not be raised by more than 0.5mmol/l/hr|
|D.||if the Na+ level is raised too quickly in a pt with chronic hyponatremia it vauses an increase in ICP|
|E.||central pontine myelinolysis is caused when hypernatremia is corrected to quickly|
|Answer» E. central pontine myelinolysis is caused when hypernatremia is corrected to quickly|
Which neoplasm is not characteristically associated with SIADH?
|Answer» C. breast|
Which drug is not well known to cause hyponatremia?
|Answer» E. roxithromycin|
With regards to hypernatremia which is incorrect?
|A.||it should not be corrected greater than 0.5mmol/L/hr|
|B.||is usually associated with inadequate water intake|
|C.||Normal Saline should not be used if the pt is hypovolemic and hypotensive|
|D.||If associated with hypervolemia then frusemide should be used|
|E.||It is clinically manifest by primarily neurological effects|
|Answer» C. Normal Saline should not be used if the pt is hypovolemic and hypotensive|
w.th regards to Calcium which statement is incorrect?
|A.||the normal correct range is 2.1-2.5|
|B.||the ionized correct range is 1.14-1.3|
|C.||to correct for the low albumin add 0.1 to the total calcium for every 4 the albumin is below 36|
|D.||the ionized calcium increases by 0.05 for every 0.1 drop in pH|
|E.||calcium chloride has less elememtal calcium than calcium gluconate|
|Answer» E. calcium chloride has less elememtal calcium than calcium gluconate|
What is not a cause of hypercalcemia?
|A.||post prandial measurement|
|Answer» D. hypomagnasemia|
Which is incorrect with regards to hypocalcemia?
|A.||it causes QT prolongation|
|B.||treatment with calcium may not work if magnesium is not given as well|
|C.||i.v administation of calcium requires cardiac monitoring|
|D.||it is seen in pancreatitis|
|E.||hyperventilation produces tetany by causes a fall in the total body calcium|
|Answer» E. hyperventilation produces tetany by causes a fall in the total body calcium|
Which is not true of hypomagnasemia?
|A.||it increases SA node automaticity|
|B.||it causes pre eclampsia|
|C.||it prolongs the QT increasing the risk of Toursades|
|D.||it is associated with a 2-3 times increased risk of AF and SVT post AMI|
|E.||symptoms include weakness, lethargy, and poorly controlled AF despite adequate digoxin|
|Answer» B. it causes pre eclampsia|
Which is not true with regards to hypermagnesemia?
|A.||it is nearly always seen in renal failure|
|B.||it causes nausea, vomiting, loss of deep tendon reflexes, drowsiness and hypotension|
|C.||it causes hypocalcemia|
|D.||if an overdose is taken, Calcium should be given as it is direct antagonist of magnesium|
|E.||it causes widening of the QRS|
|Answer» C. it causes hypocalcemia|
Which equation is incorrect?
|A.||anion gap =(Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + HCO3-)|
|B.||calculated serum osmolality = 2(Na + urea +glucose)|
|C.||paO2 = pIO2 – paCO2/0.8|
|D.||the expected CO2 in metabolic acidosis = 1.5 × HCO3- + 8|
|E.||the expected CO2 in metabolic alkalosis =0.9× HCO3- + 9|
|Answer» B. calculated serum osmolality = 2(Na + urea +glucose)|
Which statement is incorrect?
|A.||the normal Aa gradient is <age/4|
|B.||in respiratory alkalosis, for every drop of 10mmHg of pCO2, the HCO3- drops 1 mmol/L acutely|
|C.||in chronic respiratory alkalosis, for every drop of 10mmHg of pCO2, the HCO3- drops 2mmol/L|
|D.||in acute respiratory acidosis, for every 10mmHg rise in pCO2 ,the HCO3 rises 1mmol/L|
|E.||in chronic respiratory acidosis, for every 10mmHg rise in pCO2 ,the HCO3 rises 2mmol/L|
|Answer» E. in chronic respiratory acidosis, for every 10mmHg rise in pCO2 ,the HCO3 rises 2mmol/L|
which does not cause a high osmolar gap, increased anion gap metabolic acidosis?
|Answer» E. chloral hydrate|
Which agent below does no cause an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis?
|E.||carbon monoxide inhalation|
|Answer» A. acetzolamide|
Which condition can be fully compensated for with regards to pH?
|E.||none of the above|
|Answer» B. respiratory alkalosis|
Which does not cause a metabolic alkalosis?
|Answer» B. diarrohea|
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