Pharmacological Principles solved MCQs

1 of 2
chapter:   Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacodynamics

1. Which of the following is >90% bound to plasma proteins?

a. Atenolol

B. Diazepam

c. Gentamycin

d. Lithium

e. Theophylline

2. Which of the following has the largest volume of distribution?

a. Digoxin

B. Imipramine

c. Lithium

d. Chloroquine

e. Trimethoprim

3. Which of the following has the shortest half life?

a. Theophylline

B. Diazepam

c. Aspirin

d. Lithium

e. Digoxin

4. Which of the following is a phase one reaction?

a. Reduction

B. Acetylation

c. Glucuronidation

d. Methylation

e. Sulphate conjugation

5. Clearance of which drug involves capacity limited elimination?

a. Theophylline

B. Gentamycin

c. Digoxin

d. Lithium

e. Phenytoin

6. An example of drugs that undergo chemical antagonism is

a. Insulin - glucagon

B. Protamine - heparin

c. Prednisone - glipizide

d. Morphine - naloxone

e. Phenoxybenzamine - prazosin

7. Regarding first order kinetics - all of the following are true EXCEPT

a. First order kinetics means rate of reaction is proportional to concentration

B. First order kinetics is more common than zero order kinetics

c. First order kinetics apply to exponential processes

d. First order kinetics generally apply to high plasma concentrations (>20 mg / 100 ml) of ethanol

e. First order kinetics result in steady state concentrations after multiple dosing.

8. Bioavailability is

a. The difference between the amount of drug absorbed and the amount excreted

B. The proportion of the drug in a formulation that is found in the systemic circulation

c. The AUC relating plasma concentration of drug to time after administration

d. Always identical with different formulations of the same drug

e. A measure of the rate of absorption of a drug

9. Which of the following drugs has a high extraction ratio?

a. Diazepam

B. Theophylline

c. Phenytoin

d. Warfarin

e. Propranolol

10. What is the half life of a drug with a volume of distribution of 700l/70kg and clearance of 49l/hour/70kg?

a. 5 hours

B. 7 hours

c. 10 hours

d. 12.5 hours

e. 15 hours

11. Regarding biotransformation

a. Phase one reactions always precede phase two reactions

B. Skin is an organ involved in drug biotransformation

c. Water conjugation is a phase one reaction

d. CYP2D6 accounts for the majority of P450 activity

e. Epoxidation is phase two biotransformation

12. Which of the following receptor - ligand pathway is correct?

a. Insulin - G protein receptor

B. Mineralocorticoid - tyrosine kinase receptor

c. Vitamin D - intracellular receptor

d. Adrenaline - ligand gated channel receptor

e. Platelet derived growth factor - cytokine receptor

13. Age associated changes in pharmacokinetics include

a. Reduction in creatinine clearance in 2/3 population

B. Decreased body fat

c. Increase body water

d. A greater reduction in conjugation compared with oxidation

e. A decreased absorption related to age alone

14. The metabolic pathway of detoxification that become increasingly important in paracetamol toxicity is

a. Conjugation with glucuronide

B. Oxidation

c. Reduction

d. Methylation

e. Cytochrome p450 dependent glutathione conjugation

15. You are given a vial with 15 ml of 0.5% prilocaine to do an arm block. How many mg of prilocaine are you injecting?

a. 7.5 mg

B. 15 mg

c. 30 mg

d. 50 mg

e. 75 mg

16. Drugs that enhance other drug metabolism include all of the following EXCEPT

a. Rifampicin

B. Ketoconazole

c. Phenobarbital

d. Griseofulvin

e. Phenytoin

17. Which is the safest to give in pregnancy?

a. Lithium

B. Phenytoin

c. Gentamycin

d. Heparin

e. ACE inhibitors

18. Regarding pharmacology principles

a. Diffusion is directly proportional to thickness and inversely proportional to surface area

B. LD50 - 50% of the dose that kills most people

c. Efficacy is the maximum response produced by a drug

d. A partial agonist is always less potent than a full agonist

e. EC50 = concentration of agonist that results in maximal response in 50% of patients

19. Reports of cardiac arrhythmias caused by unusually high blood levels of 2 antihistamines (terfenadine and astemizole) are best explained by

a. Concomitant treatment with phenobarbital

B. Use of these drugs by smokers

c. Use of antihistamines by persons of Asian background

d. A genetic predisposition to metabolise succinylcholine slowly

e. Treatment of these patients with ketoconazole

20. Which of the following statements is correct?

a. The half life is the time taken for a parameter to fall to 1/4 its original value

B. Partial agonists act at receptor sites to cause maximal pharmacological effect at high doses

c. Diazepam has a high extraction ratio and is thus subject to flow dependent elimination

d. Morphine and pethidine have the same potency

e. A patient with oedema will have an increased volume of distribution of tobramycin

chapter:   Pharmacodynamics & Pharmacokinetics

21. Which of the following drugs has an average half life of 50 hours?

a. Nortriptylline

B. Digoxin

c. Trimethoprim

d. Valproic acid

e. Lithium

22. All of the following have 100% oral bioavailability EXCEPT

a. Valproic acid

B. Trimethoprim

c. Digoxin

d. Diazepam

e. Lithium

23. All of the following drugs are >90% plasma protein bound EXCEPT

a. Diazepam

B. Frusemide

c. Fluoxetine

d. Gentamicin

e. Warfarin

24. Which of the following drugs has a volume of distribution >2000 ℓ/70kg?

a. Aspirin

B. Imipramine

c. Digoxin

d. Propranolol

e. Chloroquine

25. What is the half life of a drug with a volume of distribution of 100ℓ/70kg and a clearance of 7ℓ/hr/70kg

a. 5 hours

B. 10 hours

c. 12.5 hours

d. 15 hours

e. 20 hours


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