explanation:-the expansion of non- conservative integral equation gives two volume integral terms. one of these terms representing the mass flow is converted into surface integral using the gauss divergence theorem.
explanation:-hgl is obtained by plotting piezometric head at various points along the axis of the pipe. since pressure may either rise or fall in the direction of flow, hgl may or may not change in that direction.
explanation:-the vertical intercept between egl and hgl is equal to the kinetic head. for a diffuser, the cross-sectional area increases in the direction of flow leading to a decrease in the velocity of flow across the pipe. since the kinetic head decreases, the vertical intercept between egl and hgl will decrease.
21. Which of the following is true?
a. the slope of egl will always be greater than that of the axis of the pipe
B. the slope of egl will always be smaller than that of the axis of the pipe
c. the slope of egl will always be equal to that of the axis of the pipe
d. the slope of egl will always be independent of that of the axis of the pipe
explanation:-in a pipe-flow, the velocity is always referred to the average velocity. there may be a case where all water particles move in the same direction with 20 m/s, then the average velocity will be equal to absolute velocity. but, this is only a special case.
24. Which of the factors primarily decide whether the flow in a circular pipe is laminar or turbulent?
a. the prandtl number
B. the pressure gradient along the length of the pipe
explanation:-the question demands the definition and not the commonly used formula of reynolds number. some of them denote the formula of reynolds number. the definition of reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force in a pipe flow.