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Chapters

27

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Chapter: Computer Graphics

1. |
## Which coordinate system is a device-dependent coordinate system? |

A. | World Coordinate System |

B. | Model Coordinate System |

C. | User Coordinate System |

D. | Screen Coordinate System |

Answer» D. Screen Coordinate System |

2. |
## Which of the following is the default coordinate system? |

A. | User Coordinate System |

B. | World Coordinate System |

C. | Screen Coordinate System |

D. | None of the above |

Answer» B. World Coordinate System |

3. |
## When every entity of a geometric model remains parallel to its initial position, the transformation is called as |

A. | User Coordinate System |

B. | World Coordinate System |

C. | Screen Coordinate System |

D. | None of the above |

Answer» B. World Coordinate System |

4. |
## In which type of projection, actual dimensions and angles of objects and therefore shapes cannot be preserved? |

A. | User Coordinate System |

B. | World Coordinate System |

C. | Screen Coordinate System |

D. | None of the above |

Answer» B. World Coordinate System |

5. |
## The matrix representation for translation in homogeneous coordinates is |

A. | User Coordinate System |

B. | World Coordinate System |

C. | Screen Coordinate System |

D. | None of the above |

Answer» B. World Coordinate System |

6. |
## The matrix representation for scaling in homogeneous coordinates is |

A. | P’=S*P |

B. | P’=R*P |

C. | P’=dx+dy |

D. | P’=S*S |

Answer» A. P’=S*P |

7. |
## The two-dimensional rotation equation in the matrix form is |

A. | P’=T+P |

B. | P’=S*P |

C. | P’=R*P |

D. | P’=dx+dy |

Answer» C. P’=R*P |

8. |
## What is the use of homogeneous coordinates and matrix representation? |

A. | To treat all 3 transformations in a consistent way |

B. | To scale |

C. | To rotate |

D. | To shear the object |

Answer» A. To treat all 3 transformations in a consistent way |

9. |
## If point are expressed in homogeneous coordinates then the pair of (x, y) is represented as |

A. | (x’, y’, z’) |

B. | (x, y, z) |

C. | (x’, y’, w’) |

D. | (x’, y’, w) |

Answer» D. (x’, y’, w) |

10. |
## For 2D transformation the value of third coordinate i.e. w (or h) =? |

A. | 1 |

B. | 0 |

C. | -1 |

D. | Any value |

Answer» A. 1 |

11. |
## We can combine the multiplicative and translational terms for 2D into a single matrix representation by expanding |

A. | 2 x 2 matrix into 4x4 matrix |

B. | 2 x 2 matrix into 3 x 3 |

C. | 3 x 3 matrix into 2 x 2 |

D. | Only c |

Answer» B. 2 x 2 matrix into 3 x 3 |

12. |
## The general homogeneous coordinate representation can also be written as |

A. | (h.x, h.y, h.z) |

B. | (h.x, h.y, h) |

C. | (x, y, h.z) |

D. | (x,y,z) |

Answer» B. (h.x, h.y, h) |

13. |
## In homogeneous coordinates value of ‘h’ is consider as 1 & it is called….. |

A. | Magnitude Vector |

B. | Unit Vector |

C. | Non-Zero Vector |

D. | Non-Zero Scalar Factor |

Answer» D. Non-Zero Scalar Factor |

14. |
## Which co-ordinates allow common vector operations such as translation, rotation, scaling and perspective projection to be represented as a matrix by which the vector is multiplied? |

A. | vector co-ordinates |

B. | 3D co-ordinates |

C. | affine co-ordinates |

D. | homogenous co-ordinates |

Answer» D. homogenous co-ordinates |

15. |
## In Coordinates, a points in n-dimensional space is represent by (n+1) coordinates. |

A. | Scaling |

B. | Homogeneous |

C. | Inverse transformation |

D. | 3D Transformation |

Answer» B. Homogeneous |

16. |
## A translation is applied to an object by D |

A. | Repositioning it along with straight line path |

B. | Repositioning it along with circular path |

C. | Only b |

D. | All of the mentioned |

Answer» A. Repositioning it along with straight line path |

17. |
## We translate a two-dimensional point by adding |

A. | Translation distances |

B. | Translation difference |

C. | X and Y |

D. | Only a |

Answer» D. Only a |

18. |
## The translation distances (dx, dy) is called as |

A. | Translation vector |

B. | Shift vector |

C. | Both a and b |

D. | Neither a nor b |

Answer» C. Both a and b |

19. |
## In 2D-translation, a point (x, y) can move to the new position (x’, y’) by using the equation |

A. | x’=x+dx and y’=y+dx |

B. | x’=x+dx and y’=y+dy |

C. | X’=x+dy and Y’=y+dx |

D. | X’=x-dx and y’=y-dy |

Answer» B. x’=x+dx and y’=y+dy |

20. |
## The two-dimensional translation equation in the matrix form is |

A. | P’=P+T |

B. | P’=P-T |

C. | P’=P*T |

D. | P’=P |

Answer» A. P’=P+T |

21. |
## -------is a rigid body transformation that moves objects without deformation. |

A. | Rotation |

B. | Scaling |

C. | Translation |

D. | All of the mentioned |

Answer» C. Translation |

22. |
## A straight line segment is translated by applying the transformation equation |

A. | P’=P+T |

B. | Dx and Dy |

C. | P’=P+P |

D. | Only c |

Answer» A. P’=P+T |

23. |
## Polygons are translated by adding to the coordinate position of each vertex and the current attribute setting. |

A. | Straight line path |

B. | Translation vector |

C. | Differences |

D. | Only b |

Answer» D. Only b |

24. |
## To change the position of a circle or ellipse we translate |

A. | Center coordinates |

B. | Center coordinates and redraw the figure in new location |

C. | Outline coordinates |

D. | All of the mentioned |

Answer» B. Center coordinates and redraw the figure in new location |

25. |
## The basic geometric transformations are |

A. | Translation |

B. | Rotation |

C. | Scaling |

D. | All of the mentioned |

Answer» D. All of the mentioned |

26. |
## A two dimensional rotation is applied to an object by |

A. | Repositioning it along with straight line path |

B. | Repositioning it along with circular path |

C. | Only b |

D. | Any of the mentioned |

Answer» C. Only b |

27. |
## To generate a rotation , we must specify |

A. | Rotation angle θ |

B. | Distances dx and dy |

C. | Rotation distance |

D. | All of the mentioned |

Answer» A. Rotation angle θ |

28. |
## The rotation axis that is perpendicular to the xy plane and passes through the pivot point is known as |

A. | Rotation |

B. | Translation |

C. | Scaling |

D. | Shearing |

Answer» A. Rotation |

29. |
## Positive values for the rotation angle θ defines |

A. | Counter clockwise rotations about the end points |

B. | Counter clockwise translation about the pivot point |

C. | Counter clockwise rotations about the pivot point |

D. | Negative direction |

Answer» C. Counter clockwise rotations about the pivot point |

30. |
## The original coordinates of the point in polar coordinates are |

A. | X’=r cos (Ф +ϴ) and Y’=r cos (Ф +ϴ) |

B. | X’=r cos (Ф +ϴ) and Y’=r sin (Ф +ϴ) |

C. | X’=r cos (Ф -ϴ) and Y’=r cos (Ф -ϴ) |

D. | X’=r cos (Ф +ϴ) and Y’=r sin (Ф -ϴ) |

Answer» B. X’=r cos (Ф +ϴ) and Y’=r sin (Ф +ϴ) |

31. |
## From the following, which one will require 4 matrices to multiply to get the final position? |

A. | Rotation about the origin |

B. | Rotation about an arbitrary Point |

C. | Rotation about an arbitrary line |

D. | Scaling about the origin |

Answer» B. Rotation about an arbitrary Point |

32. |
## Rotation is simply---------object w.r.t origin or centre point. |

A. | Turn |

B. | Shift |

C. | Compression |

D. | Drag element |

Answer» A. Turn |

33. |
## A line AB with end point A (2,3) & B (7,8) is to be rotated about origin by 300 in clockwise direction. Determine the coordinates of end points S of rotated line. |

A. | (3.232, 2.598) |

B. | (5.232, 3.598) |

C. | (3.232, 1.298) |

D. | (3.232, 1.598) |

Answer» D. (3.232, 1.598) |

34. |
## An ellipse can also be rotated about its center coordinates by rotating |

A. | End points |

B. | Major and minor axes |

C. | Only a |

D. | None |

Answer» B. Major and minor axes |

35. |
## The transformation that is used to alter the size of an object is |

A. | Scaling |

B. | Rotation |

C. | Translation |

D. | Reflection |

Answer» A. Scaling |

36. |
## Scaling of a polygon is done by computing |

A. | The product of (x, y) of each vertex |

B. | (x, y) of end points |

C. | Center coordinates |

D. | Only a |

Answer» D. Only a |

37. |
## We control the location of a scaled object by choosing the position is known as……………………………. |

A. | Pivot point |

B. | Fixed point |

C. | Differential scaling |

D. | Uniform scaling |

Answer» B. Fixed point |

38. |
## If the scaling factors values sx and sy are assigned to the same value then……… |

A. | Uniform rotation is produced |

B. | Uniform scaling is produced |

C. | Scaling cannot be done |

D. | Scaling can be done or cannot be done |

Answer» B. Uniform scaling is produced |

39. |
## If the scaling factors values Sx and Sy are assigned to unequal values then |

A. | Uniform rotation is produced |

B. | Uniform scaling is produced |

C. | Differential scaling is produced |

D. | Scaling cannot be done |

Answer» C. Differential scaling is produced |

40. |
## The objects transformed using the equation P’=S*P should be |

A. | Scaled |

B. | Repositioned |

C. | Both a and b |

D. | Neither a nor b |

Answer» C. Both a and b |

41. |
## If the scaling factors values Sx and Sy < 1 then |

A. | It reduces the size of object |

B. | It increases the size of object |

C. | It stunts the shape of an object |

D. | None |

Answer» A. It reduces the size of object |

42. |
## If the value of Sx=1 and Sy=1 then |

A. | Reduce the size of object |

B. | Distort the picture |

C. | Produce an enlargement |

D. | No change in the size of an object |

Answer» D. No change in the size of an object |

43. |
## The polygons are scaled by applying the following transformation. |

A. | X’=x * Sx + Xf(1-Sx) & Y’=y * Sy + Yf(1-Sy) |

B. | X’=x * Sx + Xf(1+Sx) & Y’=y * Sy + Yf(1+Sy |

C. | X’=x * Sx + Xf(1-Sx) & Y’=y * Sy – Yf(1-Sy) |

D. | X’=x * Sx * Xf(1-Sx) & Y’=y * Sy * Yf(1-Sy) |

Answer» A. X’=x * Sx + Xf(1-Sx) & Y’=y * Sy + Yf(1-Sy) |

44. |
## Reflection is a special case of rotation. |

A. | True |

B. | False |

Answer» B. False |

45. |
## If two pure reflections about a line passing through the origin are applied successively the result is |

A. | Pure rotation |

B. | Quarter rotation |

C. | Half rotation |

D. | True reflection |

Answer» A. Pure rotation |

46. |
## What is the determinant of the pure reflection matrix? |

A. | 1 |

B. | 0 |

C. | -1 |

D. | 2 |

Answer» C. -1 |

47. |
## Which of the following is NOT true? Image formed by reflection through a plane mirror is |

A. | of same size |

B. | same orientation |

C. | is at same distance from the mirror |

D. | virtual |

Answer» B. same orientation |

48. |
## Which of the following represents shearing? |

A. | (x, y) → (x+shx, y+shy) |

B. | (x, y) → (ax, by) |

C. | (x, y) → (x cos(θ)+y sin(θ), -x sin(θ)+y cos(θ)) |

D. | (x, y) → (x+shy, y+shx) |

Answer» D. (x, y) → (x+shy, y+shx) |

49. |
## If a ‘3 x 3’ matrix shears in X direction, how many elements of it are ‘1’? |

A. | 2 |

B. | 3 |

C. | 6 |

D. | 5 |

Answer» B. 3 |

50. |
## If a ‘3 x 3’ matrix shears in Y direction, how many elements of it are ‘0’? |

A. | 2 |

B. | 3 |

C. | 6 |

D. | 5 |

Answer» D. 5 |

51. |
## Shearing is also termed as |

A. | Selecting |

B. | Sorting |

C. | Scaling |

D. | Skewing |

Answer» D. Skewing |

52. |
## Shearing and reflection are types of translation. |

A. | True |

B. | False |

Answer» B. False |

53. |
## Which of this is compulsory for 2D reflection? |

A. | Reflection plane. |

B. | Origin |

C. | Reflection axis |

D. | Co-ordinate axis. |

Answer» C. Reflection axis |

54. |
## Two successive translations are |

A. | Multiplicative |

B. | Inverse |

C. | Subtractive |

D. | Additive |

Answer» D. Additive |

55. |
## Two successive translations are commutative. |

A. | True |

B. | False |

Answer» A. True |

56. |
## General pivot point rotation can be expressed as |

A. | T(zr,yr).R(θ).T(-zr,-yr) = R(xr,yr,θ) |

B. | T(xr,yr).R(θ).T(-xr,-yr) = R(xr,yr,θ) |

C. | T(xr,yr).R(θ).T(-xr,-yr) = R(zr,yr,θ) |

D. | T(xr,yr).R(θ).T(-xr,-yr) = R(zr,yr,θ) |

Answer» B. T(xr,yr).R(θ).T(-xr,-yr) = R(xr,yr,θ) |

57. |
## Which of the following is NOT correct (A, B and C are matrices) |

A. | A∙B = B∙A |

B. | A∙B∙C = (A∙B) ∙C = A∙ (B∙C) |

C. | C(A+B) = C∙A + C∙B |

D. | 1 A = A 1 |

Answer» A. A∙B = B∙A |

58. |
## Reflection about the line y=0, the axis, is accomplished with the transformation matrix with how many elements as ‘0’? |

A. | 8 |

B. | 9 |

C. | 4 |

D. | 6 |

Answer» D. 6 |

59. |
## Which transformation distorts the shape of an object such that the transformed shape appears as if the object were composed of internal layers that had been caused to slide over each other? |

A. | Rotation |

B. | Scaling up |

C. | Scaling down |

D. | Shearing |

Answer» D. Shearing |

60. |
## Transpose of a column matrix is |

A. | Zero matrix |

B. | Identity matrix |

C. | Row matrix |

D. | Diagonal matrix |

Answer» C. Row matrix |

61. |
## Reversing the order in which a sequence of transformations is performed may affect the transformed position of an object. |

A. | True |

B. | False |

Answer» A. True |

62. |
## How many minimum numbers of zeros are there in ‘3 x 3’ triangular matrix? |

A. | 4 |

B. | 3 |

C. | 5 |

D. | 6 |

Answer» B. 3 |

63. |
## The object space or the space in which the application model is defined is called |

A. | World co-ordinate system |

B. | Screen co-ordinate system |

C. | World window |

D. | Interface window |

Answer» A. World co-ordinate system |

64. |
## What is the name of the space in which the image is displayed? |

A. | World co-ordinate system |

B. | Screen co-ordinate system |

C. | World window |

D. | Interface window |

Answer» B. Screen co-ordinate system |

65. |
## What is the rectangle in the world defining the region that is to be displayed? |

A. | World co-ordinate system |

B. | Screen co-ordinate system |

C. | World window |

D. | Interface window |

Answer» C. World window |

66. |
## The window opened on the raster graphics screen in which the image will be displayed is called |

A. | World co-ordinate system |

B. | Screen co-ordinate system |

C. | World window |

D. | Interface window |

Answer» D. Interface window |

67. |
## The process of mapping a world window in World Coordinates to the Viewport is called Viewing transformation. |

A. | True |

B. | False |

Answer» A. True |

68. |
## Panning is a technique in which users can change the size of the area to be viewed in order to see more detail or less detail. |

A. | True |

B. | False |

Answer» B. False |

69. |
## Drawing of number of copies of the same image in rows and columns across the interface window so that they cover the entire window is called |

A. | Roaming |

B. | Panning |

C. | Zooming |

D. | Tiling |

Answer» D. Tiling |

70. |
## By changing the dimensions of the viewport, the and of the objects being displayed can be manipulated. |

A. | Number of pixels and image quality |

B. | X co-ordinate and Y co-ordinate |

C. | Size and proportions |

D. | All of these |

Answer» C. Size and proportions |

71. |
## Co-ordinates are ranging according to the screen resolution. |

A. | True |

B. | False |

Answer» A. True |

72. |
## Any convenient co-ordinate system or Cartesian co-ordinates which can be used to define the picture is called |

A. | spherical co-ordinates |

B. | vector co-ordinates |

C. | viewport co-ordinates |

D. | world co-ordinates |

Answer» D. world co-ordinates |

73. |
## The transformation of perspective projection must include, where d is the distance between the center of projection to the projection plane. |

A. | D |

B. | 1/d |

C. | -d |

D. | -1/d |

Answer» D. -1/d |

74. |
## An area on a display device to which a window is mapped is called a…………. |

A. | Window |

B. | Viewpoint |

C. | Pixel |

D. | None of the above |

Answer» B. Viewpoint |

75. |
## A Pixel is |

A. | a computer program that draws picture |

B. | A picture stored in secondary memory |

C. | The smallest resolvable part of a picture |

D. | All of the above |

Answer» C. The smallest resolvable part of a picture |

76. |
## A system that automates the drafting process with interactive computer graphics is called |

A. | Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) |

B. | Computer Aided Design (CAD) |

C. | Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) |

D. | Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) |

Answer» B. Computer Aided Design (CAD) |

77. |
## In which type of projection, actual dimensions and angles of objects and therefore shapes cannot be preserved? |

A. | Orthographic |

B. | Isometric |

C. | Perspective |

D. | None of the above |

Answer» C. Perspective |

78. |
## Coordinate of □ABCD is WCS are: lowermost corner A(2,2) & diagonal corner are C(8,6). W.r.t MCS. The coordinates of origin of WCS system are (5,4). If the axes of WCS are at 600 in CCW w.r.t. the axes of MCS. Find new vertices of point A in MCS. |

A. | (4.268, 6.732) |

B. | (5.268, 6.732) |

C. | (4.268, 4.732) |

D. | (6.268, 4.732) |

Answer» A. (4.268, 6.732) |

79. |
## A line AB with end points A (2, 1) & B (7, 6) is to be moved by 3 units in x-direction & 4 units in y-direction. Calculate new coordinates of points B. |

A. | (10, 2) |

B. | (2, 10) |

C. | (10, 10) |

D. | (10, 5) |

Answer» C. (10, 10) |

Chapter: Geometric Modeling

80. |
## QFor generating Coons patch we require |

A. | A set of grid points on surface |

B. | A set of control points |

C. | Four bounding curves defining surface |

D. | Two bounding curves and a set of grid control points |

Answer» C. Four bounding curves defining surface |

81. |
## In a 2-D CAD package, clockwise circular arc of radius, 5, specified from P1 (15,10) to P2 (10,15)will have its center at |

A. | (10, 10) |

B. | (15, 10) |

C. | (15, 15) |

D. | (10, 15) |

Answer» A. (10, 10) |

82. |
## In the following geometric modelling techniques which are not three-dimensional modelling? |

A. | Wireframe modelling |

B. | Drafting |

C. | Surface modelling |

D. | solid modelling |

Answer» B. Drafting |

83. |
## In the following three-dimensional modelling techniques. Which do not require much computer time and memory? |

A. | Surface modelling |

B. | Solid modelling |

C. | Wireframe modelling |

D. | All of the above |

Answer» C. Wireframe modelling |

84. |
## In the following geometric modelling techniques. which cannot be used for finite element analysis: |

A. | Wireframe modelling |

B. | Surface modelling |

C. | Solid modeling |

D. | none of the above |

Answer» D. none of the above |

85. |
## In the following geometric primitives. which is not a solid entity of CSG modelling: |

A. | Box |

B. | Cone |

C. | Cylinder |

D. | Circle |

Answer» D. Circle |

86. |
## Which of the following is not an analytical entity? |

A. | Line |

B. | Circle |

C. | Spline |

D. | Parabola |

Answer» C. Spline |

87. |
## Which of the following is not a synthetic entity? |

A. | Hyperbola |

B. | Bezier curve |

C. | B-spline curve |

D. | Cubic spline curve |

Answer» A. Hyperbola |

88. |
## Which one of the following does not belong to the family of conics? |

A. | Parabola |

B. | Ellipse |

C. | Hyperbola |

D. | Line |

Answer» D. Line |

89. |
## The number of tangents required to describe cubic splines is |

A. | 2 |

B. | 1 |

C. | 3 |

D. | 4 |

Answer» B. 1 |

90. |
## The shape of Bezier curve is controlled by |

A. | Control points |

B. | Knots |

C. | End points |

D. | All the above |

Answer» A. Control points |

91. |
## The curve that follows a convex hull property is: |

A. | Cubic spline |

B. | B-spline |

C. | Bezier curve |

D. | Both (b) and (c) |

Answer» B. B-spline |

92. |
## The degree of the Bezier curve with n control points is |

A. | n + 1 |

B. | n - 1 |

C. | n |

D. | 2n |

Answer» A. n + 1 |

93. |
## The degree of the B-spline with varying knot vectors |

A. | Increases with knot vectors |

B. | Decreases with knot vectors |

C. | Remains constant |

D. | none of the above |

Answer» A. Increases with knot vectors |

94. |
## The number of non-coincidental points required to define the simplest surface are |

A. | 4 |

B. | 3 |

C. | 2 |

D. | 5 |

Answer» B. 3 |

95. |
## The tensor product technique constraints surfaces by two curves. |

A. | 2 |

B. | 1 |

C. | 3 |

D. | 4 |

Answer» B. 1 |

96. |
## In the bezier curve, the curve is always to first and last segments of the polygon |

A. | normal |

B. | parallel |

C. | tangent |

D. | none of the above |

Answer» C. tangent |

97. |
## The unit vector in the direction of the line is defined as . |

A. | tangent vector+length of the line |

B. | tangent vector-length of the line |

C. | tangent vector/length of the line |

D. | length of the line/tangent vector |

Answer» C. tangent vector/length of the line |

98. |
## From the following, which is an axisymmetric surface? |

A. | Plane Surface |

B. | Ruled Surface |

C. | Surface of Revolution |

D. | All of the above |

Answer» C. Surface of Revolution |

99. |
## curves allow local control of the curve |

A. | Analytical |

B. | Hermite cubic spline |

C. | Beizer |

D. | B-Spline |

Answer» D. B-Spline |

100. |
## To determine the coefficients of the equation – two end-points and the two tangent vectors. This statement is true for which of the following |

A. | B-spline curve |

B. | Hermite Cubic Spline Curve |

C. | Beizer curve |

D. | none of the above |

Answer» B. Hermite Cubic Spline Curve |

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