Pathology solved MCQs

1 of 6

1. Smoking is associated with all the following diseases EXCEPT

a. spontaneous abortion

B. atherosclerosis

c. bladder carcinoma

d. chronic liver disease

2. Smoking is associated with

a.

B.

d. particle deposition in alveolar macrophages

3. In pulmonary tuberculosis

a. the Ghon complex is a parenchymal peri-hilar lesion

B. bacilli establish themselves in sites of low oxygen tension

c. liquefactive necrosis precedes granuloma formation

d. Langhans cells occur in coalescent granulomas

e. Primary TB causes more damage to lungs than secondary TB

4. The commonest site of primary TB lesion in lung is

a. apex

B. base

c. hilum

d. lower zone of upper lobe

e. peripherally

5. Regarding the changes to myocardium after MI

a. pallor at 24 hours

B. wavy fibres are found centrally

c. decreased contractility after 5 minutes

d. liquefactive necrosis is typical

e. sarcoplasm is resorbed by leukocytes

6. In compensated cardiac hypertrophy changes include

a. diffuse fibrosis

B. hyperplasia

c. decreased sarcomeres

d. increased capillary density

e. increased capillary/myocyte ratio

7. In atherosclerosis the cells at the centre of the plaque are

a. macrophages

B. foam cells

c. leukocytes

d. smooth muscle cells

8. All of the following are major risk factors for atherosclerosis EXCEPT

a. obesity

B. hyperlipidemia

c. smoking

d. hypertension

e. diabetes

9. Endocarditis in IV drug abusers typically

a. involves the mitral valve

B. is caused by candida albicans

c. does not cause fever

d. has a better prognosis than other types of endocarditis

e. is caused by staph aureus

10. The commonest cause of fungal endocarditis is

a. actinomycosis

B. as

c. as

d. candida

e. blatomycosis

11. With regard to MI

a. gross necrotic changes are present within 3-5 hours

B. irreversible cell injury occurs in less than 10 minutes

c. fibrotic scarring is completed in less than 2 weeks

d. death occurs in 20 % of cases in less than 2 hours

e. is most commonly caused by occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery

12. Regarding pericarditis

a. constrictive pericarditis only rarely follows suppurative pericarditis

B. primary pericarditis is usually bacterial in origin

c. serous pericarditis may be due to ureamia

d. haemorrhagic pericarditis is most commonly due to Klebsiella infection

e. fibrinous pericarditis is due to TB until proven otherwise

13. Shock results in

a.

B.

d. decreased capillary hydrostatic pressure

14. Patient who has a normal blood pressure post MI must have

a. increased cardiac output

B. increased systolic filling pressure

c. increased right atrial pressure

15. Acute endocarditis

a. has a less than 20 % mortality

B. is caused by virulent micro-organisms

c. 30 % is caused bacteria

16. Congestive cardiac failure may be caused by

a. vitamin A deficiency

B. niacin deficiency

c. vitamin D deficiency

d. thiamine deficiency

e. vitamin C deficiency

17. Thromboctopenia

a. occurs commonly in HIV

B. causes spontaneous bleeding at levels of less than 90,000/mm

c. occurs with hyposplenism

d. is related to platelet survival in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

e. is not associated with megaloblastic anaemia

18. A young man presents with central chest pain presumed to beassociated with vasoconstriction. The most likely cause of the pain is local

a. hypoxia

B. decreased ATP

c. increased CO2

d. catecholamines acting on alpha 1 receptors

e. acetylcholine stimulation

19. An adult male with an ejection fraction of 80 % could be due to

a. myocardial ischaemia

B. arrhythmia

c. thiamine deficiency

20. Malignant hypertension

a. 75 % recover with no loss of renal function

B. is associated with abnormal renin levels

e. affects 1 to 5 % of sufferers

21. The cause of fluid retention peripherally with congestive cardiac failureis

a. increased renin

B. increased GFR

c. increased angiotensin 2

d. increased aldosterone

22. Rheumatic carditis is associated with

a. Curschmann spirals

B. Ito cells

c. Aschoff bodies

d. Nutmeg cells

e. Reed-sternberg cells

23. Bradykinin

a. causes smooth muscle dilatation

B. kallikrein causes prohormone degredation to produce bradykinin

24. Diabetes is associated with

a. carbuncles

B. mucormycosis

e. all of the above

25. Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is associated with

a. decreased insulin sensitivity

B. abnormal glucokinase activity

c. no antibodies found at diagnosis

d. auto-immune insulitis

e. twin concordance greater than 70 %

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