Q.

Permanent - hardness of water may be removed by addition of –

A. Alum
B. Sodium carbonate
C. Lime
D. Potassium Permangante
Answer» B. Sodium carbonate
Explanation: Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. In domestic use, it is used as a water softener in laundering. It competes with the magnesium and calcium ions in hard water and prevents them from bonding with the detergent being used. Sodium carbonate can be used to remove grease, oil and wine stains.
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