# 170+ Metrology and Measurements Solved MCQs

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1.

## What is the relation between variation due to observation, manufacturing process and measuring process of a product?

A. σobservation = σprocess + σmeasurement
B. σobservation = σprocess – σmeasurement
C. σobservation = σprocess * σmeasurement
D. σobservation = σprocess / σmeasurement
Answer» A. σobservation = σprocess + σmeasurement
Explanation: the variation in the observation depends upon the variation in the product due to manufacturing process and variation due to measuring process. in order to keep σobservation minimum measurement should be kept minimum so that product as a whole is reliable.
2.

## movements?

A. 0.04 mm
B. 0.05 mm
C. 0.07 mm
D. 0.06 mm
Explanation: the permissible error in the perpendicular motion of ocular microscope column w.r.t. the work stage over 100 mm movements is 0.06mm.
3.

## rotation in universal micrometer?

A. dial indicator
B. slip gauges
C. control shaft
D. universal microscope
Explanation: a special control shaft is used to check this where a right angled blade is provided at right angle to shaft diameter line. the ocular line is made to coincide with the blade and the column is titled, the shift in position of the ocular line is noted, this shift is the required error.
4.

## used for setting of helix angles in universal micrometer?

A. 1’
B. 2’
C. 3’
D. 4’
Explanation: the permissible error which is allowed in the entire range of column rotation is ± 5′. a clinometer is used to check this which is of 1′ least count. the clinometer is put over column top. given inclination is further checked with clinometer.
5.

## Which of the following is true for the calibration of instruments?

A. in casting and fabrication shops the measurements made are of more precise nature as compared to those made in machine shop and tool room
B. periodical calibration is made for optical measuring instruments
C. there is no need of periodic calibration in universal microscope
D. preventive maintenance is not necessary for optical measuring instruments
Explanation: in machine shop and tool room the measurements made are of more precise than those made in casting and fabrication shops, so instruments used in these shops require more frequent calibration. annual programme can be made for periodical calibration and for general preventive maintenance in optical measuring instruments like universal microscope.
6.

## What is the permissible error in straight movement of longitudinal and transverse table in horizontal plane?

A. 0.002 mm
B. 0.003 mm
C. 0.004 mm
D. 0.005 mm
Explanation: the permissible error in straight movement of longitudinal and transverse table is 0.002 mm in horizontal plane and 0.005 mm in vertical plane. this can be checked by using a rectangular straight edge and a dial indicator of least count 0.001 mm with an attachment for fixing dial indicator.
7.

## Which of the following is true for checking the Relative perpendicular motion of the longitudinal and transverse carriage?

A. the permissible error allowed is 0.005 mm in 2500 mm length.
B. this is checked using a slip gauges
C. precision square of class i or 0 is used
D. maximum error in precision error is of ± 10″ in squareness
Answer» C. precision square of class i or 0 is used
Explanation: the permissible error allowed in this case is 0.005 mm in 1100 mm length. this can be done by using a precision square of class i or class 0 accuracy having a maximum error of ± 10″ in squareness.
8.

## What is the maximum permissible error in wear of centres?

A. 0.04 mm
B. 0.03 mm
C. 0.02 mm
D. 0.01 mm
Explanation: the centres are set and checked for straightness. it can be observed while rotating the centres. the maximum error permissible for wear of centres is 0.01 mm.
9.

## What is the least count of dial indicators which can be calibrated using passmeter?

A. 0.01 mm
B. 0.03 mm
C. 0.05 mm
D. 0.07 mm
Explanation: the dial indicators of least count 0.01 mm can be calibrated by using passmeter or by micrometer dial comparator of least count 0.002 mm. the dial indicators can also be calibrated using slip gauges.
10.

## Which of the following is caused bycareless handling?

A. systematic error
B. gross error
C. random error
D. none of the mentioned
Explanation: gross errors are mostly due to lack of knowledge, judgment and care on the part of the experiment. that is gross error is caused by careless handling.
11.

## ‘A system will be error free if we removeall systematic error’.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: random errors will remain in a system even if we remove all systematic errors. random errors are also known as residual errors.
12.

## Which of the following is not afundamental quantity?

A. length
B. angle
C. time
D. luminous intensity
Explanation: derived units are those expressed in terms of fundamental units.
13.

## Which standard is fixed and used forindustrial laboratories?

A. international standard
B. primary standard
C. secondary standard
D. working standard
Explanation: secondary standards are fixed and used in industrial laboratories. working standards as its name suggests is used for day to day measurements. international standards are accepted internationally and primary standards are used in different parts of world which will not be accessible outside for calibration.
14.

## Which of the following error is caused bypoor calibration of the instrument?

A. random error
B. gross error
C. systematic error
D. precision error
Explanation: systematic errors are caused by poor calibration of instruments.
15.

## Starting position of an object is representedas x=5.1±0.2m and finishing position asy=6.9±0.3m. What will be the displacementand error in displacement?

A. displacement = 1m, error = 0.5m
B. displacement = 2m, error = 0.36m
C. displacement = 1.8m, error = 0.36m
D. displacement = 1.5m, error = 0.4m
Answer» C. displacement = 1.8m, error = 0.36m
Explanation: displacement between two positions represented as x±Δx and y±Δy is iy- xi and error in displacement is (Δx2
16.

## ‘Zero error is an indication of instrumental error’.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: zero error refers to a false indication of an instrument when the true value is zero and zero error can be treated as an instrumental error.
17.

## Which of the following is not among the methods of linear measurements?

A. direct measurements
B. measurements by optical means
C. indirect measurements
D. electromagnetic methods or edm
Explanation: linear measurements are mainly divided into three heads. they are direct measurements, measurements by optical means, edm.
18.

## Which of the following is not a method of measuring the distances directly?

A. pacing
B. measurement with passometer
C. measurement with pedometer
D. measurement with theodolite
Explanation: measurements with theodolite is optical means. measurement with passometer, measurement with pedometer, pacing are based on the method of measuring the distances directly.
19.

## Which of the following measurements varies with an individual before computing the length of line?

A. chaining
B. pacing
C. levelling
D. contouring
Explanation: length of a line is computed by knowing the average length of pace. pacing is a rough surveying. chaining gives almost accurate readings. taping gives accurate readings.
20.

## Which method consists in counting the number of paces between the two points of a line?

A. chaining
B. pacing
C. levelling
D. contouring
Explanation: by definition of pacing chaining is measuring using different chains. levelling is a method used to estimate elevation of ground which is 2 dimensional. contouring gives three dimensional view of the site.
21.

## Pacing is difficult in

A. smooth surfaces
B. plain areas
C. rough ground
D. plateaus
Explanation: pacing is difficult in uneven
22.

## Which instrument mechanism is operated by motion of the body and it automatically registers the number of paces, thus avoiding the monotony and strain of counting the paces, by the surveyor?

A. passometer
B. pedometer
C. odometer
D. chaining
Explanation: pedometer is a device similar to the passometer except that, adjusted to the length of the pace of the person carrying it.
23.

## Which instrument registers total distance covered by any number of pace?

A. passometer
B. pedometer
C. odometer
D. chaining
Explanation: pedometer advantage on passometer is that it registers total distance
24.

## Instrument for registering the number of revolutions of a wheel is

A. odometer
B. pedometer
C. pedometer
D. chaining
Explanation: number of revolutions registered by odometer can then be multiplied by the circumference of the wheel to get the distance. pedometer advantage on passometer is it registers total distance covered unlike number of paces in passometer.
25.

## Most accurate method of direct measuring is with

A. passometer
B. pedometer
C. theodolite
D. chaining
Explanation: theodolite measurement is not under direct measurements. measurement with passometer, measurement with pedometer, pacing is based on the method of measuring the distances directly.
26.

## Which of the following is not under direct measurement?

A. pacing
B. chaining
C. taping
D. triangulation
Explanation: triangulation is by optical means. pacing is rough surveying. chaining gives almost accurate readings. taping gives accurate readings.
27.

## ground?

A. spirit level
B. plumb bob
C. butt rod
D. pegs
Explanation: it also transfers points from line ranger to the ground. spirit level is the instrument used to level the plane table by adjusting the spirit bubble in it to center.
28.

## What is used for measuring offsets, but it is often used by building surveyors or architects?

A. plum bob
B. butt rod
C. pegs
D. laths
Explanation: it generally consists of two laths, each of 1 yard or 1 m in length loosely tiered together. plumb bob is suspended at the center of the plane table to transfer the points on the plan to ground.
29.

## What is used in centering aid in theodolites, compass, plane table and variety of other surveying instruments?

A. butt rod
B. whites
C. laths
D. plumb bob
Explanation: plumb bob transfers points to the ground so it is used for centering. butt are used for measuring offsets.
30.

## Which of the following option is incorrect about interchangeability?

A. increase output
B. increase cost of production
C. useful in mass production
D. assembly time increases
Explanation: an interchangeable part is one that can be replaced with a similar part manufactured to the same drawing. it can be used in mass production with an economic oriented approach. assembly time decreases as mating parts are interchangeable.
31.

## What are the main considerations for deciding the limits of a particular part?

A. functional requirement
B. economics and interchangeability
C. interchangeability and functional requirement
D. interchangeability, functional requirement and economics
Answer» D. interchangeability, functional requirement and economics
Explanation: functional requirements are related to the function of a component that is what is required to do. interchangeability is for ease of replacement of part. economics is related to the minimum cost and time.
32.

## For full interchangeability, what is the relation between the process capability of a machine and manufacturing tolerance of the part?

A. process capability = manufacturing tolerance
B. process capability ≥ manufacturing tolerance
C. process capability > manufacturing tolerance
D. process capability ≤ manufacturing tolerance
Answer» D. process capability ≤ manufacturing tolerance
Explanation: for full interchangeability, only such machines are selected for manufacturing whose process capability ≤ manufacturing
33.

## Which of the following option is correct in given statements about interchangeability? Statement 1: Standardisation is not so much of importance for interchangeability. Statement 2: Interchangeability follows ‘normal distribution’.

A. f, t
B. t, t
C. f, f
D. t, f
Explanation: standardisation is important in interchangeability. it is essential to follow a common standard by all, only then interchangeability is possible. all standards used by the manufacturing unit are traceable to international standards.
34.

## Which of the following option is not correct for ‘full interchangeability’?

A. this type of interchangeability is not feasible sometimes
B. requires machine which can maintain low process capability
C. machines with very high accuracy are necessary
D. for interchangeable production, this type of interchangeability is not must
Answer» B. requires machine which can maintain low process capability
Explanation: full interchangeability is also known as universal interchangeability. many times, universal interchangeability is not feasible because it requires machine capable of maintaining very high accuracy and high process capability.
35.

## What is the correct formula to find no. of groups in selective assembly?

A. process capability / tolerance desired
B. tolerance desired / process capability
C. tolerance desired * process capability
D. tolerance desired + process capability
Answer» A. process capability / tolerance desired
Explanation: no. of groups segregated in selective assembly depends upon desired tolerance and process capability of machine. conditions like high quality and low cost can be achieved by selective assembly technique.
36.

## What is a limit system?

A. series of tolerances
B. series of fits
C. series of clearances
D. series of limits
Explanation: limit system is a series of tolerances arranged to suit a specific range of size. by this, limits of size are selected and given to mating parts to ensure specific classes of fit.
37.

## Which of the following is used to check change in ocular lines position due to column rotation in universal micrometer?

A. dial indicator
B. slip gauges
C. control shaft
D. universal microscope
Explanation: a special control shaft is used to check this where a right angled blade is provided at right angle to shaft diameter line. the ocular line is made to coincide with the blade and the column is titled, the shift in position of the ocular line is noted, this shift is the required error.
38.

## What is the least count of clinometer which is used to check reading of column rotation used for setting of helix angles in universal micrometer?

A. 1’
B. 2’
C. 3’
D. 4’
Explanation: the permissible error which is allowed in the entire range of column rotation is ± 5′. a clinometer is used to check this which is of 1′ least count. the clinometer is put over column top. given inclination is further checked with clinometer.
39.

## How 34’ can be built by using angle gauges?

A. 27’+9’-3’+1’
B. 26’+10’-2’
C. 27’+10’-3’
D. 27’+8’
Explanation: combinations can be made by only three series of angle gauges. minutes series is with 1’, 3’, 9’, 27’ angle gauges.
40.

## In how many series the gauges can be divided?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
Explanation: 16 or 13 gauges can be divided into 3 series i.e. degree, minutes and seconds (fraction of minute).
41.

## What is the approximate size of angle gauges?

A. 76mm long and 16 wide
B. 85mm long and 26 wide
C. 16mm long and 75 wide
D. 70mm long and 18 wide
Answer» A. 76mm long and 16 wide
Explanation: angle gauges are about 3 inch (76.2 mm) long and 5/8 inch (15.87 mm) wide. and their faces are lapped within 0.0002 mm.
42.

## What is the accuracy of master angle gauges?

A. 0.1 sec
B. 1 sec
C. 0.25 sec
D. 3 sec
Explanation: master angle gauges are laboratory standard and most expensive of all. they measure the angle with an accuracy of
43.

## Which gauges are present in the first series (degree) of angle gauges?

A. 5°, 10°, 15°, 25° and 40°
B. 1°, 3°, 9°, 27° and 41°
C. 1°, 5°, 9°, 25° and 45°
D. 5°, 10°, 15°, 30° and 45°
Answer» B. 1°, 3°, 9°, 27° and 41°
Explanation: the standard angles gauges have 5 gauges present in the first series. they consist of 1°, 3°, 9°, 27° and 41° gauges.
44.

## How many sets of angle gauges are available?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
Explanation: two sets of angle gauges are available. one set with 16 gauges with an accuracy of 1’’ and one set with 13 gauges with 3’’.
45.

## Statement 2: Interferometry can be used to calibrate angle gauges.

A. t, f
B. f, f
C. f, t
D. t, t
Explanation: direct combination of angle gauges can be made up to angle 81o40.9’. for the larger angle, square block is used with angle gauges.
46.

## What are the two grades of angle gauges?

A. master and tool room
B. precise and normal
C. standard and industrial
D. high and low
Answer» A. master and tool room
Explanation: master grade is laboratory standard and made from steel carbide or tungsten carbide. tool grade is normal industrial purpose angle gauges made from steel.
47.

## How angle greater than 90° is measured?

A. by repeating gauges
B. using square plate
C. using sine bar
D. using auto collimator
Explanation: versatility of angle gauges increases when used with a square plate. square plates with angle gauge can measure angle greater than 90o.
48.

## Which of the following is not a gauge from standard B angle gauges?

A. 0.05’
B. 1’
C. 27’
D. 30
Explanation: standard a has 13 gauges and standard b has all gauges from standard a except 0.05’ i.e. 12 gauges.
49.

## Which of the following is not true about metrology lasers used in laser inspection?

A. these are high-power instruments
B. used for rapid non-contact gauging of delicate parts
C. have low optical cross-talk
D. wide dynamic range
Answer» A. these are high-power instruments
Explanation: these are low-power instruments. laser systems have wide dynamic range, high contrast and low optical cross-talk. laser systems can be used in inspection of surfaces and in dimensional measurements and are very useful in precision and accuracy measurements.
50.

## What is the wavelength of light produced by He-Ne laser in laser inspection?

A. 6988 Å
B. 5328 Å
C. 5928 Å
D. 6328 Å
Explanation: he-ne lasers are used in laser inspection. light produced by he-ne lasers is at a wavelength of 6328 Å or 0.6 μm and that is in phase and coherent. this source is a 1000 times more intense than other monochromatic sources.
51.

## Which technique is not suitable to measure large diameter parts or large gaps?

A. diffraction pattern technique
B. scanning laser technique
C. photodiode array imaging
D. laser triangulation sensor
Explanation: diffraction pattern technique is not suitable for diameters larger than few mm and is used to measure small gaps and small diameter parts. in this method, a parallel laser beam which is coherent is diffracted by a small part, and the resultant pattern is focussed on a linear diode array by a lens.
52.

## Which of the following is true about resolution in two frequency laser interferometer?

A. straightness resolution – 90 nm
B. angular resolution – 3 arc seconds
C. flatness resolution – 2 nm
D. linear resolution – 1 nm
Answer» D. linear resolution – 1 nm
Explanation: the advantage of two frequency laser interferometer technique is that system does not depend upon the beam intensity and provides high sensitivity, it is also independent of noise due to air turbulence. the linear resolution by two frequency laser interferometer technique is 1 nm, angular resolution is 0.03 arc seconds and straightness resolution is 40 nm.
53.

## How much accuracy can be achieved by photodiode array imaging?

A. ±0.05 μm
B. ±0.15 μm
C. ±0.5 μm
D. ±0.25 μm
Explanation: in photodiode array imaging method which is a laser inspection technique in which the stationary part’s shadow is projected on a solid-state diode array image sensor. for large parts, 2 arrays are used i.e. one array for each edge. accuracies as high as ±0.05 μm can be achieved by this method.
54.

## Which application is ideally suited for two frequency laser interferometer?

A. pitch and yaw measurement
B. hole diameters
C. thickness measurement
D. measurement of edge locations
Answer» A. pitch and yaw measurement
Explanation: 2 frequency laser interferometer techniques are ideally suitable for measuring linear positioning, pitch, yaw and straightness in two planes. the two- frequency laser head provides, one frequency with a p polarisation i.e. m (measuring) beam and another frequency with an s polarisation
55.

## The location of the image spot directly depends on which factor in laser triangulation sensor technique?

A. wavelength of laser
B. measuring range
C. standoff distance
D. focal length of lense
Explanation: the location of the image spot in laser triangulation sensor technique depends directly upon the standoff distance between the sensor and the surface of object. if standoff distance changes, it will result in a lateral shift of the spot along the sensor array.
56.

## Which technique from given laser inspection techniques is useful for measuring the diameter of hot steel bars?

A. laser scanning gauge
B. frequency laser interferometer
C. laser triangulation sensors
D. photodiode array imaging
Explanation: the laser scanning gauge technique is very useful to measure the diameter and roundness of hot steel bars under the vibration conditions to an accuracy of 0.025 millimeter over diameters of 5 to 25 millimeter.
57.

## Where does wire is placed in a measurement of diameter using the technique of gauging wide diameter from the diffraction pattern formed in a laser beam?

A. between collimator and lens
B. between collimator and source
C. between collimator and plane of measurement
D. between collimator and detectors
Answer» C. between collimator and plane of measurement
Explanation: gauging wide diameter is a method of the measurement of the thin wire diameter with the use of the interference fringes resulting from diffraction by the wire in the laser beam. output variation from the photodetector is caused by changes in fringes.
58.

## How many sensors are needed to measure part thickness by using laser triangulation sensors?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
Explanation: it is possible to measure part thickness or the inside bore diameter with the help of 2 sensors in laser triangulation sensor technique. the measurement accuracy and measurement range are directly related.
59.

## What precise movement does CMM have?

A. precise movement in x coordinate
B. precise movement in x and y coordinates
C. precise movement in y and z coordinates
D. precise movement in x, y and z coordinates
Answer» D. precise movement in x, y and z coordinates
Explanation: co-ordinate measuring machines are useful for three dimensional measurements. these machines have precise movements in x,y and z coordinates which can be easily measured and controlled.
60.

## Which type of CMM is most suited for large heavy workpieces?

A. cantilever type
B. bridge type
C. horizontal boring mill type
D. floating bridge type
Answer» C. horizontal boring mill type
Explanation: bridge type cmm is more difficult to load. it less sensitive to mechanical errors. horizontal boring mill type is best suited for heavy and large workpieces. highly accurate type is vertical bore mill type but is usually slower to operate.
61.

## Which direction is sensed by a linear measurement transducer used in CMM?

A. positive direction only
B. negative direction only
C. both positive and negative direction
D. not used to sense directions
Answer» C. both positive and negative direction
Explanation: each slide in cmm is equipped with the help of a precision linear measurement transducer in 3 directions. it
62.

## What is the accuracy of present day co- ordinate measuring machine?

A. 10 microns
B. 5 microns
C. 2 microns
D. 1 micron
Explanation: co-ordinate measuring machines of present day are three-axis digital read-out type and these machines work up with an accuracy of 10 microns. resolution of present day co-ordinate machine is 5 microns.
63.

## What is the name of an element which uses inductive coupling?

A. inducto conduct
B. inductosyn
C. conductosyn
D. conducto induct
Explanation: cmm utilize a measuring element known as inductosyn data element. it uses inductive coupling between conductors and the conductors are separated by a small air gap. as inductosyn is not subjected to wear, it does not develop inaccuracy.
64.

## Which principle is used in the three master guideways and probe location?

A. principle of dynamic design
B. principle of static design
C. principle of kinematic design
D. principle of effective design
Answer» C. principle of kinematic design
Explanation: in the probe location and three master guideways, the principles of kinematic design are used. whole machine is supported on a 3-point suspension with its massive granite work table.
65.

## What is the cause of translational errors in CMM?

A. error in scale division
B. error in straightness
C. twisting error
D. roll error
Explanation: translational errors result from errors in the division of scale and straightness error perpendicular to the corresponding axis direction. errors in scale division are known as positional errors. error in straightness is the cause of translational errors.
66.

## Which of the following is not related to the geometrical accuracy of CMM?

A. straightness of axes
B. squareness of axes
C. position accuracy
D. axial length measuring accuracy
Answer» D. axial length measuring accuracy
Explanation: geometrical accuracy concerned with the straightness of axes, position accuracy and squareness of axes while total measuring accuracy concerns volumetric length measuring accuracy and axial length measuring accuracy.
67.

## How many measurement parameters are considered in checking axes accuracy of straightness in CMM?

A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 8
Explanation: six measurement parameters need to be considered in the straightness of axes. straightness of x-axis measured in y and z directions. straightness of z-axis in x and y directions and of y-axis in x and z directions.
68.

## How many reference gauges are measured for volumetric length measuring accuracy in CMM?

A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5
Explanation: it is defined as the difference between the reference length of gauges, oriented freely and the corresponding results from the machine. 3 reference gauges are measured. their lengths corresponding to approx. 1/3, 1/2 and 3/4 of the full travel of the longest axes.
69.

## Which of the following is true for trigger type probe system used in computer controlled CMM?

A. bucking mechanism is a 2 point bearing
B. current coordinate position stored when circuit is close
C. contacts of point bearing arranged at 90 degree
D. contacts of point bearing act as electrical micro switches
Answer» D. contacts of point bearing act as electrical micro switches
Explanation: the “buckling mechanism” in trigger type probe system is a 3 point bearing, the contacts of which are arranged around the circumference at 120 degrees. these contacts act as micro switches.
70.

## What does the total number of pixels in the region defines?

A. perimeter
B. area
C. intensity
D. brightness
Explanation: the area of a region is defined by the total number of pixels in the region. the perimeter is given the number of pixels
71.

## What is the unit of compactness of a region?

A. meter
B. meter2
C. no units
D. meter-1
Explanation: the compactness of a region is defined as (perimeter)2/area. thus, the compactness of a region is a dimensionless quantity.
72.

## For which of the following regions, compactness is minimal?

A. rectangle
B. square
C. irregular
D. disk
Explanation: we know that, compactness of a region is defined as (perimeter)2/area. thus, disk shaped region has a minimal value of this ratio and hence the minimal compactness.
73.

## Compactness is insensitive to orientation.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: with the exception of errors introduced by the rotation of the digital image, we can state that compactness of a region is insensitive to the orientation of the image.
74.

## Which of the following measures are not used to describe a region?

A. mean and median of grey values
B. minimum and maximum of grey values
C. number of pixels alone
D. number of pixels above and below mean
Answer» C. number of pixels alone
Explanation: some of the measures which are used to describe a region are mean and median of grey values, minimum and maximum of grey values and number of pixels above and below mean. the area of the region, i.e., the total number of pixels in the region cannot alone describe the region.
75.

## We cannot use normalized area as one of the region descriptor.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: one of the regional descriptor is normalized area. it can be quite useful to extract information from the image. in satellite images of earth, the data can be refined by normalized it with respect to land mass per region.
76.

## What is the study of properties of a figure that are unaffected by any deformation?

A. topology
B. geography
C. statistics
D. deformation
Explanation: we can define topology as the study of properties of a figure that are unaffected by any deformation, as long as there is no joining or tearing of the figure. we use topological properties in the region description.
77.

## On which of the following operation of an image, the topology of the region changes?

A. stretching
B. rotation
C. folding
D. change in distance measure
Explanation: if a topological descriptor is defined by the number of holes in an image, then the number of holes will not vary if the
78.

## Topological properties don’t depend on the distance measures.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: we know that, as stretching affects distance, topological properties do not depend on the notion of distance or any properties implicitly based on the concept of distance measures.
79.

## What is the Euler number of the image shown below?

A. 0
B. 1
C. 2
D. -1
Explanation: the image shown in the question has two holes and one connected components. so, the euler number e is given as 1-2=-1.
80.

## What is the Euler number of a region with polygonal network containing V,Q and F as the number of vertices, edges and faces respectively?

A. v+q+f
B. v-q+f
C. v+q-f
D. v-q-f
Explanation: it is very important to classify the polygonal network. let v,q and f denote
81.

## What is the Euler number of the region shown in the figure below?

A. 1
B. -2
C. -1
D. 2
Explanation: the polygonal network given in the figure has 7 vertices, 11 edges and 2 faces. thus the euler number is given by the formula,
82.

## The texture of the region provides measure of which of the following properties?

A. smoothness alone
B. coarseness alone
C. regularity alone
D. smoothness, coarseness and regularity
Answer» D. smoothness, coarseness and regularity
Explanation: one of the important approach to region description is texture content. this helps to provide the measure of some of the important properties of an image like smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the region.
83.

## Structural techniques deal with the arrangement of image primitives.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: structural techniques deal with the arrangement of image primitives, such as the description of the texture based on the regularly spaced parallel lines.
84.

## Which of the following techniques is based on the Fourier transform?

A. structural
B. spectral
C. statistical
D. topological
Explanation: spectral techniques are based on properties of the fourier spectrum and are used primarily to detect global periodicity in an image by identifying high energy, narrow peaks in the image.
85.

## Who gave the fundamental principle of straightness measurement?

A. bryan
B. moire
C. euler
D. amedeo
Explanation: fundamental principle of measurement of straightness is given by bryan. according to this principle, “a straightness measurement system should be in
86.

## Which of the following represents the quality of straightness in precision engineering?

A. spirit level
B. straight edge
C. autocollimator
D. dial indicator
Explanation: at many places, it is necessary that the surface must be straight e.g. in lathe machine it is required that the tool must move in straight path. straight line is the basis of most methods of measurements.
87.

## What is the tolerance of the straightness of a line?

A. maximum deviation from the straight line joining two extremities
B. maximum deviation from the middle point of straight line joining two extremities
C. minimum deviation from the straight line joining two extremities
D. minimum deviation from the middle point of straight line joining two extremities
Answer» A. maximum deviation from the straight line joining two extremities
Explanation: the tolerance on the straightness of a line can be defined as the maximum deviation in
88.

## What is the name of a pair of straight edges?

A. drum sticks
B. lower pair
C. winding sticks
D. self closed pair
Explanation: straight edge is a measuring tool consist of a steel and is used to check the straightness. straight edges are used in machining industry and automotive service. winding stick is a pair of straight edges which are used in woodwork.
89.

## What is the position of straightness interferometer in straightness measurement optics?

B. after straightness reflector
C. between laser head and straightness reflector
D. no need of interferometer
Explanation: straightness interferometer is placed between laser head and reflector.
90.

## What is the range of straightness measurement in straightness measurement optics?

A. ±2.5 mm
B. ±5 mm
C. ±10 mm
D. ±20 mm
Explanation: to measure straightness errors in a linear axis, straightness measurement optics are used. for both short range and long range measurement, length of straightness measurement is ±2.5 mm.
91.

## Which of the following is not the factor affecting the accuracy of straightness measurement by optics?

A. air turbulence
B. optics fixed rigidly
C. slope error
D. localised heat sources
Explanation: factors affecting the accuracy of straightness measurement by optics are air turbulence, mechanical vibrations, optic errors, slope errors, optics not fixed in the correct position, optics not fixed rigidly, localised heat sources etc.
92.

## At which part of the precision straight edge is generally lapped?

A. edges only
B. base only
C. base and edges both
D. all over the surface
Explanation: straight edges are extremely useful for setting up machines such as planers. precision straight edges are hardened and lapped on the edges by a small radius, which makes a blunt knife edge straight to a few thousands of an mm.
93.

## What type of thread is formed on female screw gauge?

C. both internal and external
Explanation: an internal thread is that which formed on the inside of a workpiece e.g. on female screw gauge or a nut. an external thread is that which formed on the outside of a workpiece e.g on bolts or studs.
94.

## Which of the following option is true for truncation?

A. thread can be tranculated at crest only
B. thread can be tranculatd at root only
C. thread can be tranculated at crest and root both
D. thread can’t be tranculated at crest and root both
Explanation: a thread is truncated sometimes at the crest or at the root or at both root and crest and root. the radial distance from the crest to the nearest apex of the fundamental triangle is truncation at the crest is and at the root it is the radial distance from the root to the nearest apex.
95.

## What is dedendum for external threads?

A. radial distance between pitch and minor cylinder
B. radial distance between major and pitch cylinder
C. radial distance between major and minor cylinder
D. axial distance between major and pitch cylinder
Explanation: addendum for an external thread is defined as the radial distance between the major cylinder and pitch cylinder and for internal addendum is the radial distance between the minor cylinder and pitch cylinder. dedendum for external thread is the radial distance between the pitch cylinder and minor cylinder and this is the radial distance between the major and pitch cylinders for internal thread.
96.

## Which of the following is not a name of the major diameter of an external thread?

A. outside diameter
B. crest diameter
C. full diameter
D. cone diameter
Explanation: for a straight thread, major diameter is the diameter of the major cylinder. it is also known to as the outside diameter or full diameter for external threads. sometimes it is also called crest diameter.
97.

## Which of the following is not true about the axial thickness of screw thread?

A. measured in direction perpendicular to the axis of thread
B. measured on pitch cylinder
C. distance between opposite faces of same thread
D. measured at the same thread
Explanation: in a screw thread axial thickness is the distance between the opposite faces of the same thread. it is measured on the pitch cylinder and in a direction parallel to the thread axis.
98.

## What is the alternative name of functional diameter?

A. cone diameter
B. virtual diameter
C. root diameter
D. inside diameter
Explanation: functional diameter is also known as virtual diameter. for an internal or external thread, this is the pitch diameter of the enveloping thread, lead and flank angles having the full depth of engagement but not at roots and crests.
99.

A. pitch in inches
B. axial distance moved by threaded part
C. reciprocal of pitch in inches
Answer» C. reciprocal of pitch in inches
Explanation: thread per inch is the reciprocal of the pitch(inches). the angle made by the thread helix at the pitch line with plane perpendicular to the axis is known as lead angle. lead angle is measured in an axial plane.
100.

## Which of the following is not true about effective diameter?

A. also known as pitch diameter
B. it decides quality of fit between nut and screw
C. this is the diameter of minor cylinder
D. it is a very important dimension for screw threads
Answer» C. this is the diameter of minor cylinder
Explanation: in case of straight thread, effective diameter is the diameter of the pitch cylinder and is also called as pitch diameter. effective diameter is the most important dimension at it decides the quality of the fit between the nut and the screw.