610+ Modern Indian History Solved MCQs


Which British Governor General introduced Postage Stamp in India?

A. Lord Dalhousie
B. Lord Auckland
C. Lord Canning
D. Lord William Bentinck
Answer» A. Lord Dalhousie
Explanation: Although the Indian Post Office was established in 1837, Asia's first adhesive stamp, the Scinde Dawk was introduced in 1852 by Sir Bartle Frere, the British East India Company's administrator of the province of Sind. The first stamps valid for postage through out India were placed on sale in October, 1854 with four values: 1/2 anna, 1 anna, 2 annas, and 4 annas. These stamps were issued following a Commission of Inquiry which had carefully studied the postal systems of Europe and America.

The first telegraph line between Calcutta and Agra was opened in -

A. 1851
B. 1853
C. 1854
D. 1855
Answer» A. 1851
Explanation: The history of Indian telecom can be started with the introduction of telegraph. The Indian postal and telecom sectors are one of the world's oldest. In 1850, the first experimental electric telegraph line was started between Kolkata and Diamond Harbour. In 1851 it was opened for the use of the British East India Company.

The former princely state Nahan is part of which State now?

A. Punjab
B. Haryana
C. Uttarakhand
D. Himachal Pradesh
Answer» D. Himachal Pradesh
Explanation: Nahan is a town in Himachal Pradesh in India and is the headquarters of the Sirmaur District. A well laid out picturesque town, Nahan is situated on a hill top in the Shiwalik Hills, overlooking green hills. Traditionally, saints and princes are linked with the origin of Nahan.

Which town/city in India has got a tower (minaar) named after Muhammad Ali Jinnah?

A. Mumbai
B. Aligarh
C. Calicut
D. Guntur
Answer» D. Guntur
Explanation: A tower in memory of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Father of Pakistan, stands at Mahatma Gandhi Road in Guntur in Andhra Pradesh.

Which of the following Acts gave representation to the Indians for the first time in legislation?

A. Indian Councils Act, 1909
B. Indian Councils Act, 1919
C. Government of India Act, 1919
D. Government of India Act, 1935
Answer» A. Indian Councils Act, 1909
Explanation: The Indian Councils Act 1909, commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India. It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative councils in India for the first time.

Punjab was annexed to the British empire during the reign of Governor-General

A. Lord Bentick
B. Lord Dalhousie
C. Lord Cornwallis
D. Lord Canning
Answer» B. Lord Dalhousie
Explanation: The Marquis of Dalhousie, the new governor-general, who arrived in India in January 1848 scarcely approved of Hardinge's "annexation without encum-brances. "In April 1848 Diwan Mul Raj's revolt at Multan opened the prospect of a fresh war in the Punjab.

The Mohemmadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh was founded by -

A. Md. Ali Jinnah
B. Mohammad Ali
C. Saukat Ali
D. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
Answer» D. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
Explanation: MAO College (or Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College) was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the leader of Muslim renaissance in Indian subcontinent, in 1875 at Aligarh. This later became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. Mohammedan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College in 1875 marks one of the most important events in the educational and social history of modern India.

Who among the following is generally regarded as the pioneer of Local Self- Government in Modern India?

A. Ripon
B. Lytton
C. Mayo
D. Curzon
Answer» A. Ripon
Explanation: The real benchmarking of the government policy on decentralization is attributed to Lord Ripon who, in his famous resolution on local self-government on May 18, 1882, recognized the twin considerations of local government: (i) administrative efficiency and (i) political education.

Who is known as the Grand Old Man of India'?

A. Dadabhai Naoroji
B. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
C. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
D. Surendranath Banerjee
Answer» A. Dadabhai Naoroji
Explanation: Dadabhai Naoroji, known as the Grand Old Man of India, was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader. His book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India brought attention to the draining of India's wealth into Britain. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895 and the first Asian to be a British MP.

Bhulabhai Desai's most memorable achievement was his defence of the Indian National Army (I.N.A.) personnel at the Red Fort Trial towards the end of -

A. 1943
B. 1944
C. 1945
D. 1946
Answer» C. 1945
Explanation: When three captured Indian National Army (INA) officers, Shahnawaz Khan, Prem Kumar Sahgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial for treason the Congress formed a Defence committee composed of 17 advocates including Bhulabhai Desai.

The First Viceroy of the Portuguese in the East was -

A. Albuquerque
B. Joa de Castro
C. Francisco de Almedia
D. Nuno da Cunha
Answer» C. Francisco de Almedia
Explanation: The Portuguese State of India was established in 1505 as a viceroyalty of the Kingdom of Portugal, six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and India, to serve as the plenipotentiary governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.

The system of communal electorate in India was first introduced by -

A. Indian Council Act of 1892
B. Minto-Morley reforms of 1909
C. Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919
D. Government of India of 1935
Answer» B. Minto-Morley reforms of 1909
Explanation: The Indian Councils Act 1909, commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, introduced the system of communal electorate in India. It provided that Indian Muslims be allotted reserved seats in the Municipal and District Boards, in the Provincial Councils and in the Imperial Legislature; that the number of reserved seats be in excess of their

The System of Dyarchy was introduced in India in -

A. 1909
B. 1935
C. 1919
D. 1945
Answer» C. 1919
Explanation: The Government of India Act 1919 provided a dual form of government (a "dyarchy") for the major provinces. In each such province, control of some areas of government, the "transferred list", were given to a Government of ministers answerable to the Provincial Council.

The Editor of Young India and 'Harijan' was -

A. Nehru
B. Ambedkar
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Subash Chandra Bose
Answer» C. Mahatma Gandhi
Explanation: Indian Opinion, Young India, Harijan were famous weeklies of Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi, in a journalistic career spanning nearly four decades, edited six journals. Between 1933 and 1940, Harijan (English) Harijan Bandu (Gujarati) and Harijan Sevak (Hindi) became the Mahatma's voice to the people of India.

'Neel Darpan' a play depicting the revolt against the indigo planters was written by -

A. Dinbandhu Mitra
B. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
C. Rabindranath Tagore
D. Naveen Chandra Sen
Answer» A. Dinbandhu Mitra
Explanation: Nil Darpan is a Bengali play written by Dinabandhu Mitra in 1858-1859. The play was essential to Nilbidraha, or Indigo revolt of February-March 1859 in Bengal, when farmers refused to sow indigo in their fields as aprotest against exploitative farming under the British Raj.

'Deshbandhu' is the title of -

A. B.R. Ambedkar
B. C.R. Das
C. B.C. Pal
D. Rabindranath Tagore
Answer» B. C.R. Das
Explanation: Chittaranjan Das, popularly called Deshba Friend of the country), was an Indian politician and leader of the Swaraj (Independence) Party in Bengal under British rule. He was a leading figure in Bengal during the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1919-1922 and initiated the ban on British clothes, setting an example by burning his own European clothes and wearing Khadi clothes.

The Bhoodan Movement was launched by -

A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Jaiprakash Narain
C. Vinoba Bhave
D. Rammanohar Lohia
Answer» C. Vinoba Bhave
Explanation: The Bhoodan movement was a voluntary land reform movement in India started by Acharya Vinoba Bhave in 1951 started at Pochampally village now known as Bhoodan Pochampally. The mission of the movement was to persuade wealthy landowners to voluntarily give a percentage of their land to lower castes.

The last Governor-General of the East India Company and the first Viceroy under the crown was

A. Lord Elgin
B. Lord Canning
C. Lord Warren Hastings
D. Lord Dalhousie
Answer» B. Lord Canning
Explanation: Lord Canning, known as The Viscount Canning from 1837 to 1859, was an English statesman and Governor-General of India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In 1858, he was made the first Viceroy of India.

The first Governor-General of Bengal was -

A. Lord Clive
B. Lord Warren Hastings
C. Lord John Shore
D. Lord Cornwallis
Answer» B. Lord Warren Hastings
Explanation: Warren Hastings was the first Governor-General of India, from 1773 to 1785. He became the Governor of Bengal in 1772 and in 1774; he became the first Governor-General of Bengal.

Gandhi's 'Dandi March' is associated with:

A. Khilafat Movement
B. Civil Disobedience Movement
C. Non-Cooperation Movement
D. Quit India Movement
Answer» B. Civil Disobedience Movement
Explanation: Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the obnoxious salt laws. On March 12,1930 Gandhiji with 78 followers started from Sabarmati Ashram on the famous Salt March to Dandi Beach to manufacture salt illegally.

Who among the following is not a moderate?

A. Pherozeshah Mehta
B. Surendranath Banerjee
C. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee
D. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Answer» A. Pherozeshah Mehta
Explanation: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghose were not Moderates.

Dring British rule, who was instrumental for the introduction of the Ryotwari system in the then Madras Presidency?

A. Macartney
B. Elphinstone
C. Thomas Munro
D. John Lawrence
Answer» C. Thomas Munro
Explanation: Thomas Munro is regarded as the father of the ‘Ryotwari system' in Madras. In 1820, he was appointed governor of Madras, where he founded systems of revenue assessment and general administration.

Which one of the following novels was a source of inspiration for the freedom fighters in India?

A. Pariksha Guru
B. Anandmath
C. Rangbhoomi
D. Padmarag
Answer» B. Anandmath
Explanation: Anandmath is a Bengali novel, written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and published in 1882. Set in the background of the Sanyasi Rebellion in the late 18th century, it became synonymous with the struggle forIndian independence from the British Empire.

Who initiated the movement to form the India Nations Congress:

A. Annie Besant
B. A.O. Hume
C. W.C. Banerjee
D. Gandhiji
Answer» B. A.O. Hume
Explanation: The Indian National Congress was formed at the initiative of British civil servant Allan Octavian Hume. In May 1885, he secured the Viceroy's approval to create an "Indian National Union", which would act as a platform to voice Indian public opinion.

Gandhiji's famous Quit India Movement call to the British was given in -

A. 1943
B. 1941
C. 1942
D. 1940
Answer» C. 1942
Explanation: The Quit India Movement was a civil disobedience movement launched in India by Gandhi on 9 August 1942. It demanded "an orderly British withdrawal from India. This waspreceded by his call to 'Do or Die.' issued on 8 August 1942 at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Mumbai.

Which one of the following party was founded by Subhash Chandra Bose?

A. Abhinav Bharat
B. Azad Hind Sena
C. Revolutionary Army
D. Forward Block
Answer» D. Forward Block
Explanation: Forward Block was founded by Subhash Chandra Bose in 1939 as a faction within the Indian National Congress. It stood for complete independence of India and carrying on anti-imperialist struggle till the goal was achieved. The party stood for social ownership and control of both means of production and distribution.

Which one of the following papers was edited by Gandhiji in South Africa?

A. Indian Opinion
B. Harijan
C. Young India
D. Indian Mirror
Answer» A. Indian Opinion
Explanation: The Indian Opinion was a newspaper established by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa in 1903. The publication was an important tool for the political movement led by Gandhi and the National Indian Congress to fight racial discrimination and win civil rights for the Indian immigrant community in South Africa.

General Dyer, who was responsible for Jallianwalan Bagh massacre, was shot dead by?

A. Hasrat Mohini
B. Vir Savarkar
C. Udham Singh
D. Amritsar
Answer» C. Udham Singh
Explanation: General Dyer, responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, died of cerebral haemorrhage and arteriosclerosis in 1927. Michael O'Dwyer, Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab in India from 1912 until 1919, whohad endorsed General Dyer's action regarding the Amritsar massacre, was assassinated by Udham Singh in 1940.

Who was the first Indian Governor General of Independent India?

A. Rajendra Prasad
B. C. Rajagopalachari
C. A. Kriplani
D. Lord Mountbatten
Answer» B. C. Rajagopalachari
Explanation: C. Rajagopalachari was the first Indian and last Governor General of Independent India. He served as Governor- General of India from June 1948 until 26 January 1950. He was not only the last Governor General of India, but the only Indian national ever to hold the office.

Which of the following was not advocated by Mahatma Gandhi?

A. Prohibition
B. Heavy Industries
C. Village Panchayat
D. Dignity of Labour
Answer» C. Village Panchayat
Explanation: Gandhi believed that India lives in villages and that development of the villages will mean development of India as a whole.

One of the following was not associated with the Gadar party?

A. Lala Hardayal
B. Baba Gurdit Singh
C. Mohammad Barkatullah
D. Sohan Singh Bhakna
Answer» B. Baba Gurdit Singh
Explanation: In 1913, Pacific Coast Hindustan Association was founded by Lala Hardayal with Sohan Singh Bhakna as its president, which was called Ghadar Party., Sohan Singh Bhakna, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Abdul Hafiz Mohamed Barakatullah and Rashbehari Bose were some of its key leaders. Baba Gurdit Singh was the central figure in the Komagata Maru incident of 1914.

Who was the first Indian to be elected as a Member of the British House of Commons?

A. Jayaprakash Narayan
B. Dada Bhai Naoroji
C. Ram Manohar Lohia
D. Sarojini Naidu
Answer» B. Dada Bhai Naoroji
Explanation: Dadabhai Naoroji was elected to the British House of Commons from the Finsbury Central Constituency in the elections of 1892. He was, thus, the first Indian and Asian to be elected as a Member of the British House of Commons. He was earlier unsuccessful in the 1885 elections from Holborn constituency.

The first Woman President of the Indian National Congress was -

A. Sarojini Naidu
B. Vijayalakshmi Pandit
C. Annie Besant
D. Kadambani Ganguli
Answer» C. Annie Besant
Explanation: Annie Besant was the first woman President of Indian National Congress. She presided over the 1917 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. She was of Irish origin and was one of the few foreigners who played a significant role in the Indian freedom movement.

Swaraj is may Birth Right and I shall have it. This was advocated by -

A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Sardar patel
C. Lokmanya Tilak
D. Lala Lajpat Rai
Answer» C. Lokmanya Tilak
Explanation: Bal Gangadhar Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of Swaraj (self- rule) and a strong radical in Indian consciousness. He is known for his quote in Marathi, "Swarajya is my birthright, and I shall have it!" As a strong advocate of Swaraj, he was against Gandhi's policy of non-violence, Satyagraha and advocated the use of force where necessary.

Who was the Nawab of Bengal during Battle of Plassey"?

A. Mir Jafar
B. Mir Qasim
C. Siraj-ud-duala
D. None of these
Answer» D. None of these
Explanation: Siraj ud-Daulah, was the last independent Nawab of Bengal. He was killed in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 A.D. The end of his reign marked the start of British East India Company rule over Bengal and later almost all of South Asia.

Name three important forms of Satyagraha.

A. Non-cooperation, civil disobedience and boycott
B. Boycott, civil disobedience and rebellion
C. Non-cooperation, revolution and referendum
D. Revolution, plebiscite and boycott
Answer» A. Non-cooperation, civil disobedience and boycott
Explanation: There are three forms of Satyagraha, namely: (i) non-cooperation, (i) civil disobedience, and (ii) boycott. These were most commonly employed during the freedom struggle in India under leadership of Gandhi.

When the East India Company was formed, the Mughal emperor in India was -

A. Jehangir
B. Humayun
C. Aurangzeb
D. Akbar
Answer» D. Akbar
Explanation: The English East India Company was founded in 1600. Akbar was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death in 1605.

Permanent Settlement of Bengal was done by British Governor General:

A. Lord Cornwallis
B. Lord Minto
C. Lord Wellesley
D. Lord Warren Hastings
Answer» A. Lord Cornwallis
Explanation: Lord Cornwallis (1786-93) in 1793 declared the decennial settlement permanent and zamindars and their legitimate successors were allowed to hold their estates at that very assessed rate for ever. The state demand was fixed at 89 percent of the rental, leaving 11 percent with the zamindars as their share for their trouble and responsibility.

Who gave the title of ‘Sardar' to Vallabhbhai Patel?

A. Rajaji
B. Gandhiji
C. Nehru
D. M.A. Jinnah
Answer» C. Nehru
Explanation: Vallabhbhai Patel was born on October 21, 1875 in Gujarat. He entered into politics in 1918. He gave conclusive proof of his dynamic leadership in 1930, when he led Bardoli Satyagraha to a successful end.

On Aril 12, 1944 Subhash Chandra Bose hoisted the INA Flag in a town. In which State/Union Territory is that town now?

A. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
B. Tripura
C. Manipur
D. Mizoram
Answer» C. Manipur
Explanation: During World War II, Moirang in Manipur was the headquarters of Azad Hind Fauz. Colonel Malik of the Indian National Army, (INA) hoisted the Tricolour for the first time on Indian soil on 14 April 1944, in Moirang with the help of Manipuris like Shri Mairembam Koireng Singh and others who were members of the INA.

Name the Political Guru' of Mahatma Gandhi.

A. Gopalakrishna Gokhale
B. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
C. Aurobindo Ghosh
D. Lala Lajpat Rai
Answer» A. Gopalakrishna Gokhale
Explanation: Gopal Krishna Gokalae, the famous moderate leader of the Indian national Congress, was the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi. When Gandhi returned to India in 1915, on the advice of his political guru Gopal Krishna Gokhale, he spent the first year touring through out the country to know the real India.

The Indian National Congress had its first meeting in the city of-

A. Calcutta
B. Bombay
C. Ahmedabad
D. Allahabad
Answer» B. Bombay
Explanation: The Indian National Congress was formed when 72 delegates from all the presidencies and provinces of India met at Bombay from 28 to 30 December 1885. Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British Indian Civil Ser vant played a leading role in the formation of the Congress.

Begum Hazrat Mahal led the 1857 revolt from:

A. Lucknow
B. Kanpur
C. Benares
D. Allahabad
Answer» A. Lucknow
Explanation: Begum Hazrat Mahal also known as Begum of Awadh was the first wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. She was stunningly beautiful, and used her courage and leadership qualities to rebel against the British East India Company during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Champaran Satyagraha was related to

A. Indigo
B. Mill-owners
C. Plague
D. Fresh assessment of land
Answer» A. Indigo
Explanation: The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Champaran district of Bihar and the Kheda district of Gujarat on 1916 & 1917 respectively Champaran Satyagraha was the first to be startedbut the word Satyagraha was used for the first time in Anti Rowlatt agitation.

Who among the following implemented the Doctrine of Lapse?

A. Lord Canning
B. Lord Dalhousie
C. Lord Hastings
D. Lord Rippon
Answer» B. Lord Dalhousie
Explanation: The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy purportedly devised by Lord Dalhousie who was the Governor General for the East India Company in India between 1848 and 1856. According to the Doctrine, any princely state or territory under the directinfluence (paramountcy) of the British East India Company (the dominant imperial power in the subcontinent), as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either "manifestly incompetent or died without a direct heir."

Who of the following attended all the Three Round Table Conferences?

A. B.R. Ambedkar
B. M.M.Malavia
C. Vallabhbhai Patel
D. Gandhiji
Answer» A. B.R. Ambedkar
Explanation: Dr. Ambedkar attended all the three Round Table Conferences in London and each time, forcefully projected his views in the interest of the 'untouchable'. He exhorted the downtrodden sections to raise their living standards and to acquire as much political power as possible.

The call of "Back to the Vedas” was given by:

A. Swami Vivekananda
B. Swami Dayanand Saraswati
C. Aurobindo Ghosh
D. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Answer» B. Swami Dayanand Saraswati
Explanation: 'Back to Vedas' was Swami Dayanand Saraswati's call when he established the Arya Samaj. By exhorting the nation to rejectsuperstitious notions, his aim was to educate the nation to 'Go back to the Vedas. He wanted the people who followed Hinduism to go back to its roots and to follow the Vedic life, which he pointed out.

When was the All India Women's Conference founded -

A. 1924
B. 1925
C. 1926
D. 1927
Answer» D. 1927
Explanation: All India Women's Conference was founded in 1927 as an organization dedicated to upliftment and betterment of women and children". AIWC was registered in 1930 under the Societies Registration Act, XXI of 1860.

The Kuka movement started in mid- Nineteenth century in -

A. Western Punjab
B. Maharashtra
C. Bengal
D. Madhya Bharat
Answer» A. Western Punjab
Explanation: The Namdhari or Kuka movement had its origin in the north-west corner of the Sikh kingdom. The main difference between Namdhari Sikhs and mainstream Sikhs is their belief in Jagjit Singh as their living Guru (as opposed to the Guru Granth Sahib, the present Guru of Sikhs).

Which of the following can be considered as the most useful and outstanding reforms made by Lord Curzon, especially in respect of the people living in the undivided province of Punjab?

A. Educational Reforms
B. Police Reforms
C. Industrial Reforms
D. Agricultural Reforms
Answer» D. Agricultural Reforms
Explanation: Curzon introduced some reforms in agriculture. He passed the Punjab Landalienation Act of 1902. Under this act Curzon declared the land of agriculture will not be transferred to non-agriculturist. In this way he protected the farmers from money lander class.

Who wrote : "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna Ab Hamaare Dil Mein Hai"?

A. Mohammed Iqbal
B. Ramprasad Bismil
C. Kazi Nazrul Islam
D. Firaq Gorakhpuri
Answer» B. Ramprasad Bismil
Explanation: Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna is a patriotic poem in Urdu written by Pandit Ram Prasad, (pen name: Bismil) he was an Indian Independence Movement leader known popularly with Kakori Train Robbery, during British Raj in India.

'Dyarchy' was introduced in the Government of India Act of -

A. 1909
B. 1919
C. 1935
D. None of these
Answer» B. 1919
Explanation: Dyarchy was the system of double government introduced by the Government of India Act (1919) for the provinces of British India. It marked the first in troduction of the democratic principle into the execu tive branch of the British administration of India.

Which one of the following was not a French settlement in India?

A. Puducherry
B. Mahe
C. Goa
D. Chandarnagar
Answer» C. Goa
Explanation: Goa is a former Portuguese colony; the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961. In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur kings with the help of a local ally, Timayya, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa).

Who from the following leaders was not assassinated?

A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Liaqat Ali Khan
C. Muhammed Ali Jinnah
D. Lord Louis Mountbatten
Answer» C. Muhammed Ali Jinnah
Explanation: Muhammad Ali Jinnah died at age 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the British Raj. He died from tuberculosis.

The original name of Swami Dayananda Saraswati was -

A. Abhi Shankar
B. Gowri Shankar
C. Daya Shankar
D. Mula Shankar
Answer» D. Mula Shankar
Explanation: Dayananda Saraswati was an important Hindu religious scholar, reformer, and founder of the Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movement. He was the first to give the call for Swarajya- "India for Indians" – in 1876, later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak. Since he was born under Mul Nakshatra, he was named "Moolshankar", and led a comfortable early life, studying Sanskrit, the Vedas and other religious texts to prepare himself for a future as a Hindu priest.

Who represented India in the Second Round Table Conference?

A. Aruna Asaf Ali
B. Sucheta Kripalani
C. Sarojini Naidu
D. Kalpana Joshi
Answer» C. Sarojini Naidu
Explanation: The Gandhi-Irwin Pact opened the way for Congress participation in this conference. Mahatma Gandhi was invited from India and attended as the sole official Congress representative accompanied by Sarojini Naidu and also Madan Mohan Malaviya, Ghanshyam Das Birla, Muhammad Iqbal, Sir Mirza Ismail Diwan of Mysore, S.K. Dutta and Sir Syed Ali Imam Gandhi claimed that the Congress alone represented political India; that the Untouchables were Hindus and should not be treated as a "minority"; and that there should be no separate electorates or special safeguards for Muslims or other minorities. These claims were rejected by the other Indian participants

What was the ultimate goal of Mahatma Gandhi's Salt Satyagraha?

A. repeal of Salt Satyagraha
B. curtailment of the Government's power
C. economic relief to the common people
D. 'Purna Swaraj' for India
Answer» D. 'Purna Swaraj' for India
Explanation: The Salt Satyagraha started on March 12, 1930, with the undertaking of the Dandi Yatra (Dandi March). The triggering factor for this movement was the British monopoly of salt trade in India and the imposition of a salt tax. According to the contemporary British laws, the sale or production of salt by anyone but the British government was a criminal offense.

Who persuaded the ratings of the RIN (Royal India Navy) to surrender on the 23rd February 1946?

A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
C. Vallabh Bhai Patel and M.A Jinnah
D. Morarji Desai and J.B. Kripalani
Answer» C. Vallabh Bhai Patel and M.A Jinnah
Explanation: In February 1946, the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) experienced a major mutiny, on a magnitude rare among modern navies. The Second Battalion of the Black watch was called from their barracks in Karachi to deal with this mutiny on Manora Island. Both Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Sardar Patel successfully persuaded the ratings to surrender. Patel wrote, "Discipline in the army cannot be tampered with. We will want [the] army even in free India".

On September 20, 1932 Mahatma Gandhi began a fast unto death in Yervada Jail against -

A. British repression of the Satyagrahis
B. Violation of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
C. Communal award of Ramsay MacDonald
D. (4) Communal riots in Calcutta.
Answer» C. Communal award of Ramsay MacDonald
Explanation: In 1932, a round table conference was organized and Ambedkar, an eminent lawyer and a Dalit leader was invited to attend the same. Through his campaigning, the government granted untouchables separate electorates under the new constitution. In protest Gandhi began a fast-unto-death while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of Pune in 1932 against the separate electorate for untouchables only.

The Swadeshi Movement was launched

A. as a protest against division of Bengal
B. with a view to improve the economic condition of the people by encouraging consumption of Indian goods
C. as a protest against the massacre of Indian people at Jallianwala Bagh
D. due to the failure of the British Government to introduce responsible Government in India
Answer» A. as a protest against division of Bengal
Explanation: The Swadeshi movement, part of the Indian indepenndence movement and the developing Indian nationalism, was an economic strategy aimed at removing the economic conditions in India by following the principles of swadeshi (self-sufficiency), which had some success.

The 19th Century reawakening in India was confined to the

A. Priestly class
B. Upper middle class
C. Rich peasantry
D. Urban landlords
Answer» B. Upper middle class
Explanation: The 19th century awakening in India was on the hand led by the very presence of the British rule in India and the education of the middle classes.

The Government of India, 1919 is also known as -

A. Morley-Minto Reforms
B. Montague - Chelmsford Reforms
C. Regulating Act
D. Pitts India Act
Answer» B. Montague - Chelmsford Reforms
Explanation: The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self - governing institutions gradually to India, The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu, the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of World War I and Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921.

Who is called the 'Father of the Indian National Congress?

A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. A.O. Hume
C. Lokmanya Tilak
D. Surendra Nath Banerjee
Answer» B. A.O. Hume
Explanation: Allan Octavian Hume was a civil servant, political reformer and amateur ornithologist and horticulturalist in British India. He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress for which he is known as the 'Father of the Indian National Congress'. A nota- ble ornithologist, Hume has also been called "the Father of Indian ornithology."

Gandhiji considered Khadi as a symbol of -

A. industrialisation
B. economic independence
C. economic growth
D. moral purity
Answer» B. economic independence
Explanation: The Khadi movement aimed at boycotting foreign goods and promoting Indian goods, thereby improving India's economy. Mahatma Gandhi began promoting the spinning of khadi for rural selfemployment and self- reliance (instead of using cloth manufactured industrially in Britain) in 1920s India thus making khadian integral part and icon of the Swadeshi movement.

"India Wins Freedom" is the autobiography of -

A. Abul Kalam Azad
B. Muhammad Ali
C. Zakir Hussain
D. Syed Ahmad Khan
Answer» A. Abul Kalam Azad
Explanation: Abul Kalam Azad spent the final years of his life focusing on writing his book India Wins Freedom, an exhaustive account of India's freedom struggle and its leaders, which was published in 1957.

Te transfer of Government from the Company' to the Crown' was pronounced by Lord Canning (November 1, 1858) at -

A. Calcutta
B. Delhi
C. Patna
D. Allahabad
Answer» D. Allahabad
Explanation: The first Viceroy of India Lord Canning organized Durbar at Allahabad on in November 1, 1858, in which he legally declared the assumption of power by Queen Victoria. It was in this durbar that authority was transferred from the East India Company to the Crown.

Mahatma Gandhi's remark, "A post- dated cheque on a crumbling bank" is regarding the pro posals of -

A. Simon Commission
B. Cripps Mission
C. Cabinet Mission
D. Wavel Plan
Answer» B. Cripps Mission
Explanation: Early in 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of the War Cabinet of Winston Churchill, was sent to make a definite offer to India on behalf of the British Government. The proposals gave a severe blow to Indian unity as the provinces could not opt to join the federation and this tantamounted to the acceptance of Pakistan in principle.

Under whose leadership was the Congress Socialist Party founded in 1934?

A. Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi
B. Acharya Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan
C. Subhas Chandra Bose and Р.С. Joshi
D. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Rajendra Prasad
Answer» B. Acharya Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan
Explanation: The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was founded in 1934 as a socialist caucus within the Indian National Congress. Its members rejected what they saw as the anti- rational mysticism of Mohandas Gandhi as well as the sectarian attitude of the Communist Part of India towards the Congress Party.

Simon Commission was boycotted by the nationalist leaders of India because:

A. they felt that it was only an eyewash
B. all the members of the Commission were English
C. the members of the Commission were biased against India
D. it did not meet the demands of the Indians
Answer» B. all the members of the Commission were English
Explanation: Simon Commission was primarily boycotted because it had no Indian members. The Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parlia that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in India.

Who among the following British persons admitted the Revolt of 1857 as a national revolt?

A. Lord Dalhousie
B. Lord Canning
C. Lord Ellenborough
D. Disraeli
Answer» D. Disraeli
Explanation: Benjamin Disraeli, the leader of the conservative party of England has called it a "National revolt." "The motives of leadership of revolt, geographical extent of the sway of revolt, its loose organizational infrastructure and the fragile basis of national consciousness at that moment do not provide substance to the so- called characterization of sepoy mutiny as 'National struggle."

The first newspaper which was published in India was -

A. The Calculatta Gazette
B. The Calculatta Gazette
C. The Oriental Magazine of Calcutta
D. The Bengal Gazette
Answer» D. The Bengal Gazette
Explanation: Hicky's Bengal Gazette was an English newspaper published from Kolkata (then Calcutta), India. It was the first major newspaper in India, started in 1780 It was published for two years.

The Portuguese built their first fort on Indian soil in the territory of the Raja of

A. Calicut
B. Cochin
C. Daman
D. Bijapur
Answer» B. Cochin
Explanation: Afonso de Albuquerque was an exceedingly energetic commander of Portuguese India, who established a Portuguese fort at Cochin in 1503 on his initial voyage. It was a timber fortress, the first fortress erected by the Portuguese in India.

The Sati System was abolished in 1829 A.D. by -

A. Lord Curzon
B. Lord Wellesley
C. Lord Lytton
D. Lord William Bentinck
Answer» D. Lord William Bentinck
Explanation: It was on 4 December, 1829, when the practice was formally banned in all the lands under Bengal Presidency by Lord William Bentinck.

The Poona Pact signed in 1934 provided for -

A. the creation of dominion status for India
B. separate electorates for Muslims
C. separate electorates for the Harijans
D. joint electorate with reservation for Harijans
Answer» D. joint electorate with reservation for Harijans
Explanation: A compromise between the leaders of caste Hindu and the depressed classes was reached on September 24,1932, popularly known as Poona Pact. The resolution announced in a public meeting on September 25 in Bombay confirmed -" henceforth, amongst Hindus no one shall be regarded as an untouchable by reason of his birth and they will have the same rights in all the social institutions as the other Hindus have".

Who said that "India's soul lives in villages"?

A. Vinoba Bhave
B. Jayaprakash Narayan
C. Jawahar Lal Nehru
D. Mahatma Gandhi
Answer» D. Mahatma Gandhi
Explanation: Gandhi had said: India's "soul" lives in villages. He, therefore, in his constructive work programme gave primacy to rural work. He wanted workers to go to villages and work with the people. His special emphasis was to improve the status of rural women.

What was the name of the Newspaper edited by Gandhiji till 1933?

A. Sarvodaya
B. Arya
C. Times of India
D. Young India
Answer» D. Young India
Explanation: Young India was brought out in English by Mahatma Gandhi from 1919 to 1932. Gandhi wrote various quotations in this journal that inspired many. He used the Young India tospread his unique ideology and thoughts regarding independence.

In which session of the Indian National Congress was the "Poorna Swaraj” resolution adopted?

A. Lucknow Session in 1916
B. Belgaum Session in 1924
C. Lahore Session in 1929
D. Karachi Session in 1931
Answer» C. Lahore Session in 1929
Explanation: Jawaharlal Nehru presided over the Indian Nation Congress at Lahore in 1929 and demanded complete independence or severance of links from the British Empire. The resolution of complete Independence was passed on December 31, 1929.

Who was regarded by Gandhiji as his political Guru?

A. Lala Lajpat Rai
B. Bipin Chandra Pal
C. Bal Gangadhar Tlak
D. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Answer» D. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Explanation: Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866- 1915) was political guru of Mahatma Gandhi. He was known as 'Mahatma Gandhi's Conscience Keeper". He founded Servants of India Society in 1905. He was the President of Indian National Congress in 1905, held at Benares.

Which one of the following events did not take place during the Vice royalty of Lord Curzon?

A. Establishment of the Department of Archaeology
B. Second Delhi Durbar
C. Formation of Indian National Congress
D. Partition of Bengal
Answer» C. Formation of Indian National Congress
Explanation: The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 when Lord Dufferin was the Viceroy of India. Allan Octavian Hume brought about its first meeting in Bombay, with the approval of Lord Dufferin.

Who among the following organised the "All India Depressed Classes Association." in colonial India?

A. M.K.Gandhi
B. Jyotiba Phule
C. Pandita Ramabai
D. B.R. Ambedkar
Answer» D. B.R. Ambedkar
Explanation: The All India Depressed Classes Federation was formed at the Conference of the Depressed Classes at Nagpur on August 8, 1930. This organization was the brainchild of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar who presided over this conference.

The only AICC session Gandhiji presided was held at:

A. Calcutta
B. Madras
C. Belgaum
D. Lahore
Answer» C. Belgaum
Explanation: Mahatma Gandhi presided over the Belgaum session of Indian National Congress in December 1924. That was the only session which was presided over by him. The session was historic as the Swaraj Party returned to the Congress fold.

Indian National Congress split for the first time in its session at-

A. Allahabad
B. Calcutta
C. Surat
D. Lahore
Answer» C. Surat
Explanation: The Congress split into 'Moderates' and Extrenists' after a violent clash at the Surat session in 1907. The extremists were led by Lokmanya Tilak, Lajpat Rai, and Sri Aurobindo; while, the moderates were led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Pherozeshah Mehta and Surendranath Banerjee.

What was Kuomintang?

A. A nationalist party in Japan
B. A fascist party in Japan
C. A terrorist organisation in China
D. A nationalist party in China
Answer» D. A nationalist party in China
Explanation: The Kuomintang (KMT), often translated as the Nationalist Party of China or Chinese Nationalist Party, is a major political party in the Republic of China (ROC). It is currently the second-largest in the country. The KMT traces its ideological and organizational roots to the work of Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism and democracy.

English education was introduced in India by -

A. Curzon
B. Macaulay
C. Dalhousie
D. Bentick
Answer» B. Macaulay
Explanation: Thomas Babington Macaulay is credited with the official introduction of English education in India. His Minute Upon Indian Education," published in 1835 called for the replacement of Persian by English as official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction in all schools, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers.

Which Governor General was called as the 'Father of Local Self-Government' in India?

A. Lord Wellesley
B. Lord Canning
C. Lord William Bentinck
D. Lord Ripon
Answer» D. Lord Ripon
Explanation: Lord Ripon is known as the Father of Local Self Government' in India. In his famous resolution on local self-government on May 18, 1882, Ripon recognized the twin considerations of local government administrative efficiency and (i) political education. He moved the famous resolution, known as the Magna Carta of local self- government in India, to devolve financial and administrative powers to the in situations of local self-government.

Who among the following was the first European to be selected as President of Indian National Congress?

A. Annie Besant
B. George Yule
C. A.O. Hume
D. Alfred Webb
Answer» B. George Yule
Explanation: George Yule, a Scottish merchant in England and India, served as the fourth President of the Indian National Congress in 1888 at Allahabad. He was the first non-Indian and European to hold that office. He served as Sheriff of Calcutta and as President of the Indian Chamber of Commerce.

Which of the following pair is incorrect?

A. Comrade-Mohammed Ali
B. Indian Sociologist- Lala Har Dayal
C. Young India-Lala Lajpat Rai
D. Common Weal-Annie Besant
Answer» C. Young India-Lala Lajpat Rai
Explanation: Young India was a weekly paper or journal in English published by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi from 1919 to 1932. He used Young India to spread his unique ideology and thoughts regarding the use of nonviolence in organizing movements and to urge readers to consider, organise, and plan for India's eventual independence from Britain.

The sepoy mutiny of 1857 occurred during the Governor Generalship of -

A. Lord Dalhousie
B. Lord Lytton
C. Lord William Bentinck
D. Lord Canning
Answer» D. Lord Canning
Explanation: The Sepoy Mutiny started on 10 May 1857 and continued till 1858. Lord Canning (28 February 1856 - 1 November 1858) was the Governor General then.

Who coined the term 'Satyagraha'?

A. Gandhi
B. Sri Aurobindo Ghosh
C. Rabindranath Tagore
D. Ram Mohan Roy
Answer» A. Gandhi
Explanation: Satyagraha is a particular philosophy and practice within the broader overall category generally known as nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term “satyagraha" was coined and developed by Mahat Gandhi who deployed it in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for Indian rights.

Which among the following movements was not led by Mahatma Gandhi?

A. Quit India Movement
B. Swadeshi Movement
C. Non-Cooperation Movement
D. Civil Disobedience Movement
Answer» B. Swadeshi Movement
Explanation: Mahatma Gandhi did not lead the Swadeshi Movement of 1905. On October 16,1905 when the Partition of Bengal was given effect to, Bengal plunged into grief. The people decided to boycott the foreign goods and use Swadeshi. A special session of the Indian National Congress was convened at Calcutta in September 1920 to adopt the policy of progressive non-violent non-cooperation in augurated by Mahatma Gandhi.

Who among the following is known as the "Father of the Indian Renaissance"?

A. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
B. Rabindra Nath Tagore
C. Swami Dayanand Saraswati
D. Swami Vivekanand
Answer» A. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Explanation: Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1774- 1833) was the founder of Brahmo Samaj. In August 1828 he founded the Brahmo Sabha which was later renamed Brahmo Samaj. Roy is known as the Father of the India Renaissance.

Who among the following revolutionaries was executed by the British?

A. Jatin Das
B. Chandrashekhar Azad
C. Rajguru
D. Kalpana Dutt
Answer» C. Rajguru
Explanation: Shivaram Hari Rajguru was an Indian revolutionist from Maharashtra who was a colleague of Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev, and took part in the murder of a British police officer, J.P. Saunders, at Lahore in 1928.

Who among the following was the first Viceroy of India?

A. Lord Cornwallis
B. Pitt
C. Lord Canning
D. Robert Clive
Answer» C. Lord Canning
Explanation: Lord Canning was an English statesman and Governor-General of India during the Indián Rebellion of 1857. For his tact and capabilities in dealing with the revolt, he was rewarded by being made the first Viceroy of India in 1858.

Bardoli Satyagraha is associated with -

A. Rajendra Prasad
B. Acharya Vinoba Bhave
C. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
D. Jamnalal Bajaj
Answer» C. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Explanation: The Bardoli Satyagraha of 1928, in the state Gujarat, India during the period of the British Raj was a major episode of civil disobedience and revolt in the Indian Independence Movement.

Capt. Saunders, the English Police Officer was shot dead by -

A. Batukeshwar Dutt
B. Ram Prasad
C. Chandra Shekar Azad
D. Bhagat Singh
Answer» D. Bhagat Singh
Explanation: Seeking revenge for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai at the hands of the police, Bhagat Singh was involved in the assassination of British police officer John Saunders.

The partition of Bengal was revoked by the British in -

A. 1911
B. 1914
C. 1917
D. 1919
Answer» A. 1911
Explanation: The decision to affect the Partition of Bengal was announced in July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. The partition took effect in October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas.

Who among the following, analysed the causes of the uprising of 1857 advocating a reconciliation between the British and the Muslims?

A. Syed Ahmed Brelvi
B. Shah Waliullah
C. Syed Ahmed Khan
D. Syed Amir Ali
Answer» C. Syed Ahmed Khan
Explanation: During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan remained loyal to the British and was noted for his actions in saving European lives. After the rebellion, he penned the booklet Asbab-e-BaghawateHind (The Causes of the Indian Mutiny) - a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt.

The communal electorate was introduced for the first time in India in -

A. 1919
B. 1935
C. 1906
D. 1909
Answer» D. 1909
Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1909-also known as the Morley-Minto Reforms granted separate electorates and communal representation to Muslims.

The two states which had non-Congress Ministries in 1937 were -

A. Bengal and Punjab
B. Punjab and NWFP
C. Madras and Central Provinces
D. Bihar and Uttar Pradesh
Answer» A. Bengal and Punjab
Explanation: Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935. Elections were held in eleven provinces - Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam NWFP, Bengal, Punjab and Sindh.

Which one of the following is incorrectly matched?

A. Columbus- 1492
B. Vasco de Gama - 1498
C. Magellan - 1520
D. Balboa 1530
Answer» D. Balboa 1530
Explanation: Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming the first European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World. He traveled to the New World in 1500 and, after some exploration, settled on the island of Hispaniola.
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