180+ Foundations of Sociology Solved MCQs

101.

The characteristic trait of militant societies is ______

A. compulsion
B. negotiation
C. toleration
D. accommodation
Answer» A. compulsion
102.

A friendship group composed of individuals of similar age and social status.

A. categories
B. peer group
C. in-group
D. triad
Answer» C. in-group
103.

Who is the author of ‗Spirit of the Laws‘?

A. rousseau
B. montesquieu
C. simmel
D. merton
Answer» B. montesquieu
104.

In _____________, interaction between individuals engaged in a common activity or a direct conversation with one another happens.

A. unfocused
B. direct
C. formal
D. focused
Answer» D. focused
105.

_____ type of society is based on voluntary cooperation and individual selfrestraint

A. militant
B. industrial
C. simple
D. primitive
Answer» B. industrial
106.

In which book has Spencer observed some similarities between biological and social organism?

A. principles of sociology
B. positive philosophy
C. positive politics
D. human society
Answer» A. principles of sociology
107.

Features of social life that challenges or creates tensions in a social system.

A. dysfunction
B. problems
C. anarchy
D. anomie
Answer» A. dysfunction
108.

Who introduced the concept of Social Class?

A. comte
B. spencer
C. durkheim
D. marx
Answer» D. marx
109.

Gemeinschaft is translated into English as ________.

A. association
B. community
C. corporation
D. institution
Answer» B. community
110.

________ is one of the most distinctive properties of human social association.

A. culture
B. society
C. interaction
D. group
Answer» A. culture
111.

Who introduced the concept of Alienation?

A. comte
B. spencer
C. durkheim
D. marx
Answer» D. marx
112.

According to Marx, ____ forces are the keys to underestimating society and social change

A. social
B. cultural
C. political
D. economic
Answer» D. economic
113.

Who introduced the Social Conflict perspectives in Sociology?

A. comte
B. spencer
C. durkheim
D. marx
Answer» D. marx
114.

The first Estate in the Estate system

A. clergy
B. nobles
C. commoners
D. labourers
Answer» A. clergy
115.

A social group is ______________ in nature.

A. static
B. dynamic
C. spontaneous
D. co-operative
Answer» B. dynamic
116.

Who believed that the history of human society has been that of class conflict?

A. comte
B. spencer
C. durkheim
D. marx
Answer» D. marx
117.

_________ is any act that contravenes the laws established by a political authority.

A. rejection
B. innovation
C. crime
D. ritualism
Answer» C. crime
118.

The system in which the labourer had nothing to sell but his/her own labour power.

A. communism
B. socialism
C. capitalism
D. nationalism
Answer» C. capitalism
119.

Name the reciprocal influence human beings exert on each other through interstimulation and response.

A. social interaction
B. social relation
C. social groups
D. co-operation
Answer» A. social interaction
120.

Which of the following books is authored by Marx?

A. principles of sociology
B. positive philosophy
C. positive politics
D. das kapital
Answer» D. das kapital
121.

Which of the following books is authored by Marx?

A. principles of sociology
B. positive philosophy
C. positive politics
D. the poverty of philosophy
Answer» D. the poverty of philosophy
122.

Relative deprivation is central to ____________ behavior.

A. cultural
B. urban
C. individual
D. reference group
Answer» D. reference group
123.

Which of the following books is authored by Marx?

A. principles of sociology
B. positive philosophy
C. positive politics
D. the german ideology
Answer» D. the german ideology
124.

Human beings organize themselves into groups called ___________, for the achievement of some object or goal.

A. institutions
B. community
C. society
D. none of the above
Answer» A. institutions
125.

______ includes everything that goes into the production of the necessities of life

A. mode of production
B. forces of production
C. relations of production
D. means of production
Answer» A. mode of production
126.

Structure is useless without __________.

A. role
B. order
C. function
D. status
Answer» C. function
127.

Name the control of society over individual.

A. custom
B. social control
C. state
D. sanction
Answer» B. social control
128.

______ refers to the relationship between those who own the means of production and those who do not

A. mode of production
B. forces of production
C. relations of production
D. means of production
Answer» C. relations of production
129.

The concept of ______was based on the ideology that society will gradually
improve on the basis that the ‗fittest‘ will be the most successful and therefore
‗survive‘.

A. social imperialism
B. social marxism
C. social colonialism
D. social darwinism
Answer» D. social darwinism
130.

Any form of social encounter between individuals is termed as ____________.

A. conflict
B. social interaction
C. deviance
D. none of the above
Answer» B. social interaction
131.

______ refers to the physical means and techniques of production to which laborers add value and transform capital into products for sale

A. mode of production
B. forces of production
C. relations of production
D. means of production
Answer» B. forces of production
132.

Which of the following modes of production is said to be classless?

A. primitive communism
B. slavery
C. feudalism
D. capitalism
Answer» A. primitive communism
133.

The core of a culture is formed by ___________.

A. art
B. values
C. technology
D. traditions
Answer» B. values
134.

The Enlightenment is associated with which of the following thinkers

A. merton
B. parsons
C. simmel
D. voltaire
Answer» D. voltaire
135.

In which of the following modes of production is the primary form of property possession of land in reciprocal contract relations?

A. primitive communism
B. slavery
C. feudalism
D. capitalism
Answer» C. feudalism
136.

In which of the following modes of production is the primary form of property the possession of objects and services through state guaranteed contract?

A. primitive communism
B. slavery
C. feudalism
D. capitalism
Answer» D. capitalism
137.

______________ is a characteristic of in-group.

A. formality
B. competition
C. primary relation
D. ethnocentrism
Answer» D. ethnocentrism
138.

Which of the following books is authored by Marx?

A. principles of sociology
B. positive philosophy
C. positive politics
D. the communist manifesto
Answer» D. the communist manifesto
139.

Name one American sociologist, who is known as the founder of behavioral sociology and exchange theory.

A. t.parsons b.
B. f.skinner
C. h. blumer
D. g. c. homans
Answer» D. g. c. homans
140.

Who defined sociology as the study of societal evolution?

A. comte
B. spencer
C. durkheim
D. marx
Answer» B. spencer
141.

_______are the sum total of social relations which human beings establish among themselves in the production of their material lives

A. mode of production
B. forces of production
C. relations of production
D. means of production
Answer» C. relations of production
142.

The __________ groups are characterized by sympathetic contact.

A. secondary
B. congregate
C. reference
D. primary
Answer» D. primary
143.

For Marx, the analysis of social order and the causes of social change must be discovered in the specific _______that a society has

A. mode of production
B. forces of production
C. relations of production
D. means of production
Answer» A. mode of production
144.

_____ shapes the mode of distribution, circulation and consumption, and is regulated by the state

A. mode of production
B. forces of production
C. relations of production
D. means of production
Answer» A. mode of production
145.

The ruling class in Feudalism is usually _______

A. clergy
B. nobility
C. commoners
D. peasants
Answer» B. nobility
146.

Contradictory demands of different roles individuals perform is termed as

A. role strain
B. role identity
C. role conflict
D. role playing
Answer» C. role conflict
147.

In which mode of production is the primary form of exploitation wage labour?

A. primitive communism
B. slavery
C. feudalism
D. capitalism
Answer» D. capitalism
148.

Social exchange theory was introduced by _____________.

A. g. homans
B. g. h. mead
C. goffman
D. peter blau
Answer» A. g. homans
149.

The ruling class in Capitalism is________

A. bourgeoisie
B. proletariat
C. peasant
D. serf
Answer» A. bourgeoisie
150.

In Capitalism, it is the _______ who exploit the proletariat

A. bourgeoisie
B. nobility
C. peasant
D. serf
Answer» A. bourgeoisie
151.

The German sociologist Simmel considered _________ as a criterion for classifying groups.

A. nature of contact
B. interaction
C. size
D. nature of membership
Answer» C. size
152.

Capitalism may produce _____ who possess the means of production for the whole of society

A. bourgeoisie
B. proletariat
C. peasants
D. serfs
Answer» A. bourgeoisie
153.

In Capitalism, the Bourgeoisie exploits the _______

A. clergy
B. proletariat
C. peasant
D. serf
Answer» B. proletariat
154.

Institution is comparatively ___________.

A. permanent
B. temporary
C. artificial
D. transitory
Answer» A. permanent
155.

Fredrick Engels hypothesized that ______ would emerge as the final form of
capitalism before the contradictions reach a point where capitalism cannot
sustain itself and socialism emerges as its successor

A. liberal capitalism
B. free capitalism
C. state capitalism
D. world capitalism
Answer» C. state capitalism
156.

Who presented the idea of ‗cultural lag‘?

A. ogburn
B. malinowski
C. maciver
D. risley
Answer» A. ogburn
157.

In which book did Marx and Engels comment that the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles

A. das kapital
B. the poverty of philosophy
C. the german ideology
D. the communist manifesto
Answer» D. the communist manifesto
158.

According to Talcott Parsons, all the units of social structure are __________.

A. concrete
B. tangible
C. abstract
D. explicit
Answer» C. abstract
159.

Who are the owners of capital in Capitalism?

A. bourgeoisie
B. nobility
C. peasant
D. serf
Answer» A. bourgeoisie
160.

A class is defined by the ownership of ________

A. property
B. labour
C. work
D. status
Answer» A. property
161.

Human interaction is essentially _____________ interaction.

A. competitive
B. co-operative
C. communicative
D. deliberate
Answer» C. communicative
162.

___________ help meet the basic needs of society.

A. associations
B. social groups
C. social institutions
D. interactions
Answer» C. social institutions
163.

___________ is the basic ingredient of social relationships.

A. group
B. awareness
C. bonding
D. interaction
Answer» D. interaction
164.

Name the system adopted by a given society to guide family or blood relationship.

A. marriage
B. culture
C. kinship
D. taboos
Answer» C. kinship
165.

Studies of social interaction, groups etc. belong to ——-——— sociology.

A. urban
B. macro
C. applied
D. micro
Answer» D. micro
166.

The components of material culture are __________ and objective.

A. external
B. internal
C. tangible
D. both a&c
Answer» D. both a&c
167.

―Contact & communication are the two main conditions of social interaction.‖ Who said so?

A. horton & hunt
B. park & burgess
C. ogburn & nimkoff
D. maciver & page
Answer» B. park & burgess
168.

__________ is a socially defined position in a group or society.

A. role
B. interaction
C. status
D. deviance
Answer» C. status
169.

―Culture is the man-made part of environment.‖ Who said so?

A. e. b. tylor
B. m.j. herskovits
C. r.brown
D. k. davis
Answer» B. m.j. herskovits
170.

Who has described ―society as a web of social relationships.‖?

A. mead
B. ogburn
C. leacock
D. maciver
Answer» D. maciver
171.

Who coined the term primary group?

A. comte
B. ginsberg
C. cooley
D. gisbert
Answer» C. cooley
172.

Studies of social interaction, groups etc. belong to —————— sociology.

A. urban
B. macro
C. applied
D. micro
Answer» D. micro
173.

The principle of an aristocratic government is _______

A. political virtue
B. honour
C. moderation
D. fear
Answer» C. moderation
174.

Comte argued that the human mind, individual human beings, all knowledge, and world history develop through ____ successive stages

A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five
Answer» B. three
175.

In Capitalism, ______ class possess only their own labour power, which they must sell in order to survive

A. bourgeoisie
B. proletariat
C. peasant
D. serf
Answer» B. proletariat
176.

Which among the following is an informal method of social control?

A. customs
B. coercion
C. law
D. education
Answer» A. customs
177.

______ in Europe followed the stage of feudalism

A. slavery
B. capitalism
C. socialism
D. communism
Answer» B. capitalism
178.

Name the author of the book ‗Primitive Culture‘

A. majumdar
B. lundberg
C. tylor
D. malinowski
Answer» C. tylor
179.

_______ and industrialisation led to the emergence of the working class as a
large and powerful body, which led to the birth of Marxism, and gave people
a new perspective and relationship with the society they lived in

A. urbanisation
B. modernisation
C. westernisation
D. sanskritisation
Answer» A. urbanisation
180.

The principle of monarchical government is ______

A. political virtue
B. honour
C. moderation
D. fear
Answer» B. honour
181.

A role is the ————— aspect of status.

A. counter
B. dynamic
C. static
D. latent
Answer» B. dynamic
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