# 170+ Estimation, Costing and Valuation Engineering Solved MCQs

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1.

## is required for preliminary studies of various aspects of a work or project.

A. supplementary estimate
B. plinth area estimate
C. revised estimate
D. abstract estimate
Explanation: to decide the financial position and policy for administrative sanction by the competent administrative authority. in case of
2.

## Per kilometre basis depending on the nature of road, for 10 km of a state highway approx. cost @ Rs. 50000/- per 1 km works out as Rs. 5 lakh.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: per kilometre basis depending on the nature of road, for 10 km of a state highway approx. cost @ rs. 500000/- per 1 km works out as rs. 50 lakh.
3.

## Approx. cost of a bridge of 3 spans of 50 m each span @Rs.30000/- per running m of span comes to 3*50*30000 = Rs. 45 lakhs.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: per running metre of span depending on the roadway, nature and depth of foundation, type of structure, etc. for small culverts approx. cost may also be per number of culverts of different spans.
4.

## Approximate cost of sewerage project for a population of one Rs. 10/- head works out as Rs. 10 lakh.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: approximate cost of sewerage project for a population of one rs. 100/- head works out as rs. 100 lakhs.
5.

## is prepared on the basis of plinth area of building, the rate being deducted from the cost of similar building having similar specification, heights and construction, in the locality.

A. cube rate estimate
B. supplementary estimate
C. maintenance estimate
D. plinth area estimate
Explanation: plinth area estimate is calculated by finding the plinth area of the building and multiplying by the plinth area rate. the plinth area should be calculated for the covered area by taking external dimension of the building at the floor level.
6.

## is the amount provided in the estimate and bill of quantities for some specialised work to be done by a specialised firm; whose details are not known at the time of preparing estimate.

A. prime cost
B. provisional sum
C. capital cost
D. building cost index
Explanation: the work like installation of refrigerating machine; installation of lift, air conditioning, etc., for which full information
7.

## estimate is a detailed estimate and is prepared to maintain the structure or work in proper order and safe condition.

A. supplementary and revised estimate
B. maintenance estimate
C. item rate estimate
D. revised estimate
Explanation: for building; this includes white washing, colour washing, painting, minor repairs etc. for road works the a.r. estimate provides for patch repairing, renewals, repair of culverts, etc.
8.

## A large work or project may consists of several building or small works and each of these work is known as

A. sub-work
B. sub-project
D. sub-construction
Explanation: detailed estimate of each sub- work is prepared separately and accounts of expenditure are kept sub-work wise.
9.

## The term                              is used to denote a procedure of costing or valuing an item of work on the basis of actual labourers and materials required.

A. prime cost
B. hour-work
C. day-work
D. sub-work
Explanation: certain items of work which cannot be measured as- a design in the plaster work, front architectural finish of a building, work under water, etc. are valued and paid by ‘day work’. in such cases the schedule of rates of materials and different classes of labourers likely to be engaged in th work should be included in the tender and in contract agreement.
10.

## The surface of the highway pavement should be designed to allow

A. high rolling resistance
B. low rolling resistance
C. no rolling resistance
D. very high rolling resistance
Explanation: the surface of highway pavement should be designed to allow no rolling resistance for safety purposes.
11.

## The soil becomes weak in

A. summer
B. winter
C. rainy season
D. spring season
Explanation: the soil becomes weak in rainy season due to the absorption of water in the soil.
12.

## Which of the following pavement has greater life?

A. bituminous pavements
B. cement concrete pavements
Explanation: the cement concrete roads have a greater life than remaining all pavements which may last even up to 100 years.
13.

## Which of the following requirement is given most importance in highway design?

A. structural
B. functional
C. seasonal
D. maintenance
Explanation: the structural design like highway speed, geometric design is given the most importance in design.
14.

## The surface of the pavement should be

A. smooth
B. rough
C. sufficient enough to resist skid
D. very rough
Answer» C. sufficient enough to resist skid
Explanation: the surface of the pavement should be sufficient enough to resist the skid of vehicles by using friction.
15.

## The drainage layer is

A. surface course
B. sub base
C. base
Explanation: the drainage layer is the sub base layer that is used to collect the water from pavement surfaces to send to ground water.
16.

## The maximum stress sustained by concrete pavements in kg/cm2 is

A. 40
B. 45
C. 50
D. 55
Explanation: the concrete pavements are designed to sustain a stress of 45kg/cm2 which is the maximum limit.
17.

## The ICPB type of pavement uses

A. concrete paver blocks
B. fly ash
C. ggbs
D. rmc
Explanation: the icpb uses mostly interlocking concrete paver blocks for the construction of pavements.
18.

## The ICPB may be used in

A. water logged areas
B. parks
C. footpaths
D. highways
Explanation: the inter locking concrete paver blocks may be used in water logged areas to absorb the water and send it to the ground water.
19.

## The maximum length of vehicle that can be used on Indian roads is

A. 11
B. 12
C. 13
D. 14
Explanation: the maximum length of a vehicle in india is restricted as per the rotary design of the highway which is maximum 12m.
20.

## 3 SEPTIC TANK

A. 12
B. 10
C. 8
D. 15
Explanation: the design life of flexible pavement is considered as 15 years, it may last even further if properly maintained.
21.

## The design period of cement concrete road is taken as

A. 20
B. 25
C. 30
D. 35
Explanation: the design period of cement roads is usually taken as 30 years but they can even last longer if properly maintained and designed.
22.

## In India the flexible pavement is designed as per

A. msa
B. ksa
C. csa
D. fsa
Explanation: the flexible pavements are designed as per irc 37 which uses msa to specify the unit of the vehicles.
23.

## Which of the following materials is not used in the construction of a septic tank?

A. concrete
B. rubber
C. fibreglass
D. plastic
Explanation: a septic tank is a watertight chamber made of brick-work, concrete, fiberglass, pvc or plastic, through which black water from the cistern or pour-flush toilets and grey water through a pipe from inside a building or an outside toilet flows for primary treatment.
24.

## Septic tank is a small scale treatment unit.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: the septic tank is the most common small-scale decentralized unit for grey water and black water from cistern or pour-flush toilets. it is basically a sedimentation tank.
25.

## The shape of the tank is circular.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: the shape of the septic tank can be rectangular or cylindrical. septic tanks are used for wastewater with a high content of settleable solids, typically for effluent from domestic sources.
26.

## The heavy particles in the tank

A. float
B. sink into the bottom
C. separated using magnetic methods
D. flow along liquid
Answer» B. sink into the bottom
Explanation: liquid flows through the top and heavy particles sink to the bottom, while scum floats to the top. over time, the solids that settle to the bottom are degraded anaerobically.
27.

## The scum formed in the tank

A. flows
B. gets dissolved
C. sink into the bottom
D. floats on top
Explanation: the scum formed in the tanks floats over the top. over time, the solids that settle to the bottom are degraded anaerobically.
28.

## Which of the following methods are not used for the dispersion of the effluent out of a septic tank?

A. wetlands
B. soak pit
C. evapo-transpiration mound
D. leach field
Explanation: by using a soak pit, evapo- transpiration mound or leach field, the effluent of the septic tank must be dispersed or transported to another treatment technology via a solids-free sewer, simplified sewer or solids-free sewer.
29.

## During the disposal of the sludge, it must be

A. liquefied
B. dried
C. burned
D. fluidized
Explanation: the sludge can be dried in planted or unplanted drying beds, settling or thickening ponds. if the sludge is dried or composted, it can be applied in agriculture as a valuable nutrient.
30.

## The first chamber in a septic tank should be at least              of the total length.

A. 10 %
B. 20 %
C. 35 %
D. 50 %
Explanation: the first chamber should be at least 50% of the total length and when there are only two chambers, it should be two thirds of the total length. most of the solids settle out in the first chamber.
31.

## Which of the following reasons is correct with respect to the need of providing baffle walls?

A. mixing of scum and wastewater
B. settling of heavy particles
C. increase velocity of the liquid
D. prevent scum and solids from escaping
Answer» D. prevent scum and solids from escaping
Explanation: the baffle or the separation between the chambers is to prevent scum and solids from escaping with the effluent. a t- shaped outlet pipe, the lower arm of which divides 30 cm below water level, further reduces the scum and solids that are discharged.
32.

## What are the product gases of anaerobic digestion?

A. carbon-dioxide and methane
B. methane and oxygen
C. oxygen and carbon-dioxide
D. nitrogen and methane
Explanation: over time, anaerobic bacteria and micro-organisms start to digest the settled sludge anaerobically, transforming it into co2 and ch4 and some heat. optimal physical treatment by sedimentation takes place when the flow is smooth and undisturbed.
33.

## What is the mixture of methane and carbon-dioxide of anaerobic digestion called?

A. waste gases
B. poisonous gas
C. biogas
D. carbo-methane
Explanation: the mixture of methane and carbon-dioxide of an anaerobic digestion is called biogas. over time, anaerobic bacteria and micro-organisms start to digest the settled sludge anaerobically, transforming it into co2 and ch4 and some heat.
34.

## The term “septic” refers to

A. anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank
B. refers to safety and precaution
C. drainage of waste materials
D. aerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank
Answer» A. anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank
Explanation: the term “septic” refers to the anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank which decomposes or mineralizes the waste discharged into the tank. septic tanks can be coupled with other onsite wastewater treatment units such as biofilters or aerobic systems involving artificially forced aeration.
35.

## Septic tank is usually consists of brick wall in cement not less than

A. 20 cm
B. 100 cm
C. 80 cm
D. 200 cm
Explanation: septic tank is usually consists of brick wall in cement not less than 20cm(9”) thick and the foundation floor are of cement concrete 1:3:6 or 1:2:4. both inside and outside faces of wall and floor are plastered with a minimum thickness of 12mm thick cement mortar 1:3 and all inside corners are rounded.
36.

## A                    is a type of toilet that collects human faeces in a hole in the ground.

A. gutter
B. septic tank
C. pit toilet
D. latrine
Explanation: a pit latrine or pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human faeces in a hole in the ground. they use either no water or one to three litres per flush with pour-flush pit latrines. when properly built and maintained they can decrease the spread of disease by reducing the amount of human faeces in the environment from open defecation. this decreases the transfer of pathogens between faeces and food by flies.
37.

## The size of the faeces drop hole in the floor or slab should not be larger than

A. 5m
B. 25 cm
C. 45 cm
D. 250 mm
Explanation: the user positions themself over the small drop hole during use. the size of the feces drop hole in the floor or slab should not be larger than 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) to prevent children falling in. light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies. this requires the use of a lid to cover the hole in the floor when not in use. however, in practice, such a lid is not commonly used as it is easy to lose it or for the lid to get very filthy.
38.

## As of 2013 pit latrines are used by an estimated                          people.

A. 1.77 billion
B. 2.77 million
C. 1.77 billion
D. 4.66 billion
Explanation: this is mostly in the developing world as well as in rural and wilderness areas. in 2011 about 2.5 billion people did not have access to a proper toilet and one billion resort to open defecation in their surroundings. southern asia and sub-
39.

## As a very general guideline it is recommended that the bottom of the pit should be at least                above groundwater level.

A. 0.5 m
B. 2 m
C. 12 m
D. 20 m
Explanation: as a very general guideline it is recommended that the bottom of the pit should be at least 2 m above groundwater level, and a minimum horizontal distance of 30 m between a pit and a water source is normally recommended to limit exposure to microbial contamination.[1]however, no general statement should be made regarding the minimum lateral separation distances required to prevent contamination of a well from a pit latrine. for example, even 50 m lateral separation distance might not be sufficient in a strongly karstified system with a down gradient supply well or spring, while 10 m lateral separation distance is completely sufficient if there is a well developed clay cover layer and the annular space of the groundwater well is well sealed.
40.

## A                            houses the squatting pan or toilet seat and provides privacy and protection from the weather for the user.

A. roof
B. terrace
D. shelter
Explanation: a shelter, shed, small building or “super-structure” houses the squatting pan or toilet seat and provides privacy and
41.

## The theory of plasticity pertaining to soils is based on

A. mohr’s theory
B. rankine’s method
C. mohr-coulomb theory
D. none of the mentioned
Explanation: the theory of plasticity pertaining to soils is based on mohr’s theory of rupture.
42.

## On designing retaining walls it is necessary to take care of                      exerted by soil mass.

A. erosion
B. lateral pressure
C. surcharge
D. lateral stress
Explanation: in the designing of retaining walls; sheet piles or other earth-retaining structures, it is necessary to compute the lateral pressure exerted by the retained mass of soil.
43.

## The material retained or supported by the retaining structure is called

A. surcharge
B. support wall
C. back fill
D. all of the mentioned
Explanation: the material retained or supported by the structure is called backfill which may have its top surface horizontal or inclined.
44.

## The coefficient of earth pressure when the soil is at equilibrium is

A. σv /σh
B. σh /σv
C. σv × σh
D. σ1 / σ3
Explanation: when the soil is at elastic equilibrium(i.e. at rest) the ratio of horizontal to vertical stress is called the co-efficient of earth pressure of rest.
45.

## The computation of stress in plastic equilibrium is based on

A. theory of plasticity
B. mohr’s theory of rupture
C. rankine’s theory
D. all of the mentioned
Explanation: the theory on which the computation of the stress in a state of plastic equilibrium is based is called the theory of plasticity.
46.

## The wedge-shaped portion of the backfill tending to move with the wall is called

A. wedge fall
B. active fall
C. failure wedge
D. none of the mentioned
Explanation: during the active state, the wall moves away from backfill and a certain portion of the backfill in wedged-shaped tend to move which is called a failure wedge.
47.

## In active stress, the major principal stress σ1 acting on the wall will be in                       plane.

A. vertical
B. horizontal
C. inclined
D. zero
Explanation: in an active state, the major principal stress σ1 is vertical and the minor principal stress σ3 is horizontal.
48.

## The plastic state of stress was proposed by

A. mohr
B. rankine
C. coulomb
D. darcy
Explanation: the plastic state of stress when the failure is imminent was investigated by rankine in 1860.
49.

## The position of the backfill lying above the horizontal plane at the top of wall is called

A. active state
B. plasticity
C. surcharge
D. slip lines
Explanation: the position of the backfill lying above a horizontal plane at the elevation of the top of a wall is called the surcharge, and its inclination to the horizontal is called surcharge angle β.
50.

## A structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side is called as

A. drainage
B. bridges
C. tunnel
D. culverts
Explanation: culverts are commonly used both as cross-drains for ditch relief and to pass water under a road at natural drainage and stream crossings. a culvert may be a bridge-like structure designed to allow vehicle or pedestrian traffic to cross over the waterway while allowing adequate passage for the water.
51.

## A structure that carries water above land is known as an

A. aqueduct
B. aquedant
C. over surface
D. outland
Explanation: bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines. the term aqueduct may also be used to refer to the entire watercourse, as well as the bridge.
52.

## If the span of crossing is greater than 12 feet (3.7 m), the structure is termed as bridge and otherwise is culvert.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: a bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. there are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations.
53.

## Culverts cannot be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: culverts can be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete (reinforced or non- reinforced), galvanized steel, aluminium, or plastic, typically high-density polyethylene. two or more materials may be combined to
54.

## A culvert can be used to span over a canyon, or depression, or even over a freeway or roadway.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: a bridge doesn’t necessarily have to bridge over water. a bridge can be used to span over a canyon, or depression, or even over a freeway or roadway.
55.

## Construction or installation at a culvert site generally results in disturbance of the site soil.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: construction or installation at a culvert site generally results in disturbance of the site soil, stream banks, or streambed, and can result in the occurrence of unwanted problems such as scour holes or slumping of banks adjacent to the culvert structure.
56.

## Box culverts can be defined as a passage for water over a natural ground having a deck

A. outlighting
B. culverting
C. daylighting
D. inlighting
Explanation: in urban design and urban planning, daylighting is the redirection of a stream into an above-ground channel.
57.

## culverts have a concrete (sometimes other materials can be used too) floor allowing the water to flow smoothly through it.

A. box
B. cylindrical
C. narrow
D. long
Explanation: box culverts are usually made up of reinforced concrete (rcc). some box culverts can be built using composite structures and are great when water needs to change direction or when a large flow of water is expected. box culverts can also be installed in such way that the top of the culvert is also the roadway surface. the most challenging part of installing these type of culverts is that you generally will need to have a dry surface to install the culvert, so dewatering or diversion of the water will be needed to complete the installation.
58.

## A                    is very useful equipment and it can be used for construction work like to clear the site of work, to make the land level, etc.

A. scraper
C. excavator
D. bulldozer
Explanation: depending upon the mountains, bulldozer maybe crawler tractor mounted bulldozer or will tractor mounted bulldozer.
59.

## The size of the bulldozer is indicated by the dimension of its

A. site
B. tyre
C. engine
Explanation: each blade has a theoretical capacity of hauling a particular type of earth and knowing the number of turns a bulldozer will make in a given time, the approximate output of a bulldozer can be activated.
60.

## A                                  can be used on wet ground and in all conditions of weather.

B. scraper
C. escalator
D. bulldozer
Explanation: by suitable attachments to the bulldozer, it can be utilized to remove trees,
61.

## A                          is used to level the ground and spreads the loose material.

A. excavator
B. scraper
D. tractor
Explanation: grader is a self propelled at home by a tractor. it consists of 3 to 4 m long angled blade supported on a framework mounted on wheels. it performs various operations like grading, spreading, side cutting and mixing of materials.
62.

## A Grader which is told by a tractor is known as

C. scraper
Explanation: the self propelled greater is known as a motor grader. for grading the machine moves forward and steering in controlling by steering wheel.
63.

## consists of a large bucket which is attached to a tractor.

A. bulldozer
B. scraper
D. escalator
Explanation: the capacity of scrapper varies from 3 m cube to 9 m cube. the scrap as a cutting edge or blade and the bottom and it is possible to dig earth to a depth of about 250 mm.
64.

## are usually mounted on two or four pneumatic tyred wheels.

A. scraper
B. backactor
C. elevator
D. escalator
Explanation: an apron is provided in front of the container which opens and close in order to regulate the flow of earth in and out of the container. scrapers are capable of producing a very smooth and accurate formation level.
65.

## type of scraper consists of a four wheeled scrapper bowl towed behind crawler Power unit.

A. three axle
B. two axle
C. crawler drawn
D. four axle
Explanation: capacities of a scrapper bowl ranges from 3 metre cube to 50 metre cube. the speed of operation is governed by the speed of towing vehicles, which is 8 km per hour when hauling, and 3 km per hour, when scrapping.
66.

## An                                is an oldest type of machine which removes earth.

A. escalator
B. excavator
C. elevator
D. bulldozer
Explanation: excavator performs it work of moving the earth while the main unit is stationary. the title effort is required to move the dead weight of earth in a vertical plane.
67.

## type of excavator used for digging the foundation trenches below operating level.

A. clamshell
B. backactor
C. power shovel
D. skimmer
Explanation: back trench hoe excavator can also be used for the excavation of smaller areas such as basement, footing and trenches. the hoe is an instrument for scrapping, digging and losing the earth.
68.

## type of excavator is used for digging below, at or above operating level in a vertical range.

A. skimmer
B. dragline
C. clamshell
D. back trench
Explanation: the clamshell excavator are widely used for rehandling of material and for working in limited space as in case of foundation trenches for pipelines, etc. it is also used for jobs that require fairly accurate dumping and disposal of material.
69.

## type of excavator carries Shovel at its lower end.

A. power shovel
B. dragline
C. clamshell
D. backactor
Explanation: power shovel excavator is used to dig at or above the operating level. it can handle loose rock and the material caught in the shovel can be suitably disposed off.
70.

## type of excavator is used for digging at or below the operating level.

A. skimmer
B. dragline
C. power shovel
D. dredger
Explanation: the various types of dragline excavator are available and the factor affecting the output of a dragline excavator
71.

## type of excavator carries the skimmer at its lower end.

A. skimmer
B. dredger
C. escalator
D. elevator
Explanation: skimmer is used for surface excavation and levelling and it cuts the surface of earth to a depth of about 200 mm to 300 mm. the skimmer excavator can also be used for loading the loose excavated material.
72.

## Which of the following is not a classification of labour?

A. skilled first class
B. skilled second class
C. unskilled
D. unskilled fourth class
Explanation: labour is classified into skilled first-class, skilled second class and unskilled. the purpose of analysis of rates is for working out the economical use of materials and the actual cost of per unit of the items.
73.

A. m 10
B. m 15
C. m 20
D. m 35
Explanation: the concrete used for cement concrete roads is of grade m 15 using 20 mm
74.

## Which of the following is the correct order of stages of estimation of concrete roads?

A. earthwork excavations, cement concrete for the base course (1:4:8) and cement concrete for wearing course (1:2:8)
B. earthwork excavations, cement concrete for wearing course (1:4:8) and cement concrete for the base course (1:2:8)
C. earthwork excavations, cement concrete for the base course (1:6:9) and cement concrete for wearing course (1:7:9)
D. cement concrete for the base course (1:2:3), cement concrete for wearing course (2:7:9) and earthwork excavations
Answer» A. earthwork excavations, cement concrete for the base course (1:4:8) and cement concrete for wearing course (1:2:8)
Explanation: the correct order of stages of estimation of concrete roads is earth work excavations, cement concrete for the base course (1:4:8) and cement concrete for wearing course (1:2:8). cement concrete road is laid over an existing water bound macadam road.
75.

## The rates of materials used for government works are approved by

A. executive board
B. sdo
C. elective board
D. board of chief engineers
Answer» D. board of chief engineers
Explanation: the board of chief engineers approves the rates of materials used for government works. however, every year, these are fixed by the superintendent engineer.
76.

## The quantity of sand required for RCC (1:2:4) for 15 cubic metres of work is

A. 4.76 m3
B. 10.32 m3
C. 8.43 m3
D. 6.51 m3
Explanation: approximately 1.52 m3 of dry concrete is required for 1 m3 of wet concrete. the quantity of sand required for rcc (1:2:4) for 15 cubic metres of work is [2/(1+2+4)] x 1.52 x 15 m3 i.e. 6.51 m3.
77.

## The quantity of coarse aggregate required for RCC (1:3:6) for 20 cubic metres of work is

A. 18.24 m3
B. 15.23 m3
C. 24.87 m3
D. 32.45 m3
Explanation: the ratio 1:3:6 is for cement, sand and coarse aggregate. therefore, the quantity of coarse aggregate required for rcc (1:3:6) for 20 cubic metres of work is [6/(1+3+6)] x 1.52 x 20 m3 i.e. 18.24 m3.
78.

## The unit of payment of cement concrete in lintels is

A. per sqm
B. per cum
C. quintal
D. kilograms
Explanation: the unit of payment of cement concrete in lintels is per cum. the unit of payment of r.c.c. in the slab is also per cum. here, per cum stands for per cubic metre.
79.

## Which of the following are parameters involved in computing the total cost of a software development project?

A. hardware and software costs
B. effort costs
C. travel and training costs
D. all of the mentioned
Answer» D. all of the mentioned
Explanation: all these are accounted for in estimating a software development cost.
80.

## Which of the following costs is not part of the total effort cost?

A. costs of networking and communications
B. costs of providing heating and lighting office space
C. costs of lunch time food
D. costs of support staff
Answer» C. costs of lunch time food
Explanation: this is a incurred by the employees.
81.

## What is related to the overall functionality of the delivered software?

A. function-related metrics
B. product-related metrics
C. size-related metrics
D. none of the mentioned
Explanation: productivity is expressed in terms of the amount of useful functionality produced in some given time. function points and object points
82.

## A                    is developed using historical cost information that relates some software metric to the project cost.

A. algorithmic cost modelling
B. expert judgement
C. estimation by analogy
D. parkinson’s law
Explanation: the model uses a basic regression formula with parameters that are derived from historical project data and current as well as future project characteristics.
83.

## It is often difficult to estimate size at an early stage in a project when only a specification is available

A. true
B. false
Explanation: function-point and object-point estimates are easier to produce than estimates of code size but are often still inaccurate.
84.

## Which technique is applicable when other projects in the same analogy application domain have been completed?

A. algorithmic cost modelling
B. expert judgement
C. estimation by analogy
D. parkinson’s law
Explanation: the cost of a new project is estimated by analogy with these completed projects.
85.

## Which model assumes that systems are created from reusable components, scripting or database programming?

A. an application-composition model
B. a post-architecture model
C. a reuse model
D. an early design model
Explanation: it is designed to make estimates of prototype development.
86.

## Which of the following states that work expands to fill the time available.

A. case tools
B. pricing to win
C. parkinson’s law
D. expert judgement
Explanation: the cost is determined by available resources rather than by objective assessment. if the software has to be delivered in 12 months and 5 people are available, the effort required is estimated to be 60 person-months.
87.

## Which model is used during early stages of the system design after the requirements have been established?

A. an application-composition model
B. a post-architecture model
C. a reuse model
D. an early design model
Answer» D. an early design model
Explanation: estimates are based on function points, which are then converted to number of lines of source code. the formula follows the standard form discussed above with a simplified set of seven multipliers.
88.

## For First class building drawing room and dining room floors shall be of

A. concrete
B. tiles
C. mosaic
D. wooden
Explanation: floors of bedrooms shall be coloured and polished of 2.5 cm(1”) cement concrete over 7.5 cm(3”) lime concrete.
89.

## For 2nd class building rain water pipes shall be of                              finished painted.

A. cast iron
B. bog iron
C. brown ore
D. pyrite
Explanation: cast iron is a group of iron- carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.[1] its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite “nodules” which stop the crack from further progressing.
90.

## Specification does not specify or describes the nature and the class off the work, materials to be used in the work, workmanship, etc.

A. false
B. true
Explanation: specification specifies or describes the nature and the class off the work, materials to be used in the work, workmanship, etc., and is very important for the execution of the work. the cost of a work depends much on the specifications.
91.

## The specifications are written in a language so that they indicate what the work should be and words “shall be” or “should be” are used.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: the general specification for civil engineering works lays down the quality of materials, the standards of workmanship, the testing methods and the acceptance criteria for civil engineering works undertaken for the government for a particular region. where necessary, this general specification should be supplemented by a particular specification.
92.

## General specification gives the nature and the class of the work and the materials in general terms.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: it is a short description of different parts of the work specifying materials, proportion, qualities, etc. general specification give general idea of the whole work or structure and are useful for preparing the estimate.
93.

## For first class building the foundation and plinth shall be of 1st class brickwork in lime mortar or 1:2 cement mortar over lime concrete or 1:6:7 cement concrete.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: foundation and plinth shall be of 1st class brickwork in lime mortar or 1:6 cement mortar over lime concrete or 1:4:8 cement concrete.
94.

## For 2nd class building superstructure shall be of 1st class brickwork in lime mortar.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: for 2nd class building superstructure shall be of 2nd class brickwork in lime mortar. lintels over doors and windows shall be of r.b.
95.

## For third class building flooring shall be of brick-on-edge floor over well rammed earth.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: rammed earth is simple to manufacture, non-combustible, thermally massive, strong, and durable. however, structures such as walls can be laborious to construct of rammed earth without machinery,
96.

## For fourth class building the doors and windows shall be of                    wood or country wood.

A. sal
B. neem
C. teak
D. mango
Explanation: technically mango is a hardwood with dense grains, so it has the strength to bear the weight necessary for chairs and heavy tables, but it’s still soft enough that it’s relatively easy to work with, requiring no special tools on behalf of the manufacturers. mango furniture can stand the wear and tear of time as well as your grandmother’s oak kitchen table, but, unlike
97.

## The water proof mud- plaster consists of

A. soil
B. janta emulsion
C. cowdung
D. soil, janta emulsion and cowdung
Answer» D. soil, janta emulsion and cowdung
Explanation: soil – soil should not be too much clayey nor too much sandy (50% clay and 50% sand are suitable). weight of dry earth should do about 112 kg per cu m (70 lbs per cu ft).
98.

## The brick work is not measured in cu m in case of

A. one or more than one brick wall
B. brick work in arches
C. reinforced brick work
D. half brick wall
Explanation: half brick wall is measured in sq m.
99.

## The excavation exceeding 1.5 m in width and 10 sq. m in plan area with a depth not exceeding 30 cm, is termed as

A. excavation
B. surface dressing
C. surface excavation
D. cutting
Explanation: surface dressing is done upto 15 cm depth and surface excavation upto 30 cm depth.
100.

A. true
B. false