60+ Basics of Counselling Psychology Solved MCQs

1.

The ego’s need for immediate gratification is known as the _____________

A. pleasure principle
B. defense mechanism
C. anxiety
D. introversion
Answer» A. pleasure principle
2.

_____________of behaviour is accomplished by rewarding successive approximations of the desired behaviour.

A. shaping
B. modeling
C. counter conditioning
D. token economy
Answer» A. shaping
3.

An individual who has achieved __________ is happy, autonomous, and creative.

A. constructive alternativism
B. libido
C. self-actualization
D. reinforcement
Answer» C. self-actualization
4.

According to Rogers, ___________from parents is necessary for children to develop healthy self- concepts.

A. self-actualization
B. contextual world view
C. unconditional positive regard
D. consequences
Answer» C. unconditional positive regard
5.

A method of learning that involves the conditioning of new stimuli to existing responses is________________

A. counter conditioning
B. extinction
C. modeling
D. classical conditioning
Answer» D. classical conditioning
6.

Freud believed that human behaviour is primarily motivated by the psychosexual energy he called_______________.

A. ego
B. libido
C. commitment
D. none
Answer» B. libido
7.

The unpleasantness of _________ motivates individuals to avoid or reduce inconsistencies in cognitive structure.

A. life space
B. cognitive dissonance
C. self-actualization
D. traits
Answer» B. cognitive dissonance
8.

A counselor might use systematic desensitization to help reduce the ___________experienced by an agoraphobic client.

A. anxiety
B. depression
C. psychosis
D. mania
Answer» A. anxiety
9.

In Jung’s theory, ______ is the tendency toward subjective functioning, with the self being of greatest importance

A. introversion
B. extraversion
C. extinction
D. shaping
Answer» A. introversion
10.

Behaviour modification programs in schools or group homes often use _____________ to motivate participants.

A. shaping
B. token economy
C. modeling
D. conditioning
Answer» B. token economy
11.

Through ____________ undesirable behaviour may be eliminated.

A. counter conditioning
B. extinction
C. modeling
D. reinforcement
Answer» B. extinction
12.

Adler is related to :

A. vicarious conditioning
B. stage theory of development
C. use of family constellation
D. traits and values
Answer» C. use of family constellation
13.

Allport is related to :

A. vicarious conditioning,
B. stage theory of development,
C. use of family constellation,
D. traits and values
Answer» D. traits and values
14.

Bandura is related to :

A. vicarious conditioning,
B. stage theory of development,
C. use of family constellation,
D. traits and values
Answer» A. vicarious conditioning,
15.

Cattell is related to :

A. 16 personality factor,
B. stage theory of development,
C. use of family constellation,
D. traits and values
Answer» A. 16 personality factor,
16.

Erickson is related to :

A. 16 personality factor,
B. stage theory of development,
C. use of family constellation,
D. traits and values
Answer» B. stage theory of development,
17.

Festinger is related to :

A. 16 personality factor,
B. stage theory of development,
C. cognitive dissonance,
D. id, ego, superego
Answer» C. cognitive dissonance,
18.

Freud is related to :

A. stage theory of development,
B. cognitive dissonance,
C. id, ego, superego
D. introversion – extroversion
Answer» C. id, ego, superego
19.

Jung is related to :

A. introversion – extroversion,
B. stage theory of development,
C. cognitive dissonance,
D. id, ego, superego
Answer» A. introversion – extroversion,
20.

Social learning theory uses the concept of modeling to explain some aspect of human behavior. The concept that best explains how modeling works within this theory is

A. primary reinforcement
B. secondary reinforcement
C. vicarious reinforcement
D. intermittent reinforcement
Answer» C. vicarious reinforcement
21.

Counselors who follow Maslow’s theory believe people’s behaviors are directed by

A. oral gratification
B. pleasure principle
C. pleasing others
D. need gratification
Answer» D. need gratification
22.

Motivation and reinforcement may come from within a person or from sources external to the person. According to Rotter, people’s behaviour is determined by their belief that reinforcements are either internally or externally controlled. This concept is called

A. locus of control
B. reinforcement contingency
C. goal orientation
D. expectancy level
Answer» A. locus of control
23.

A client who reverts to old behaviour patterns is said to be

A. projecting
B. compensating
C. actualizing
D. regressing
Answer» D. regressing
24.

As a counselor in a community mental health centre, you receive a pay check every other Friday. This is an example of which reinforcement schedule?

A. variable interval
B. fixed interval
C. variable ratio
D. fixed ratio
Answer» B. fixed interval
25.

Jung’s work forms the basis for many personality concepts of interest today. Among these are

A. introversion-extroversion
B. collective unconscious
C. individuation
D. all the above
Answer» D. all the above
26.

In adult development, mid-life is characterized by

A. androgyny
B. decline in intellectual functioning
C. a sense of time running out
D. peer pressure
Answer» C. a sense of time running out
27.

Piaget identifies four major stages of child development. Which of the following refers to the period during which the child develops the abilities to classify and seriate objects and to maintain relationships between objects despite their physical manipulation?

A. formal operations
B. concrete operations
C. preoperational
D. sesorimotor
Answer» B. concrete operations
28.

Which of the following describes Roger’s view of humanity?

A. people are rational
B. people are irresponsible
C. people are inherently go
D. people are externally controlled
Answer» C. people are inherently go
29.

According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development,

A. most fail to go beyond the conventional level
B. moral development precedes logical development
C. structure and content are synonymous
D. society’s rules are superior to personal ethics
Answer» A. most fail to go beyond the conventional level
30.

Festinger is known for the concept of cognitive dissonance, He believes individuals

A. cannot accept differences of opinion
B. tend to change their attitudes irrationally
C. seek consistency in cognitive structure
D. reject discrepancies between the real and ideal
Answer» C. seek consistency in cognitive structure
31.

The first theorist to acknowledge continued development during adulthood was

A. jung
B. adler
C. piaget
D. loevinger
Answer» A. jung
32.

A childhood disturbance characterized, by withdrawal, a blurred sense of self, and obsessive self-stimulation (head banging, rocking, and so on) is known as

A. infantile dementia
B. hyperkinesis
C. retardation
D. autism
Answer» B. hyperkinesis
33.

According to Adler’s theory of individual psychology, when an individual’s real self and self-ideal do not match,

A. the reality principle becomes evident
B. the individual will seek ego gratification
C. the preconventional level has been reached
D. feeling of inferiority arise
Answer» D. feeling of inferiority arise
34.

As a new counselor in a community mental health center, you have been assigned to a client whose diagnosis is “anorexia nervosa”. You would expect the client to be

A. male rather than female
B. middle-aged rather than adolescent
C. extroverted rather than introverted
D. none of the above
Answer» D. none of the above
35.

Two theorists who believe human beings are motivated by needs are

A. adler and allport
B. maslow and rogers
C. murray and maslow
D. moreno and murray
Answer» C. murray and maslow
36.

When working with clients, counselors need to be aware of defense mechanisms. Clients who refuse to take responsibility for their own actions or situations often attribute their unacceptable desires or impulses to others. This is an example of

A. regression
B. projection
C. repression
D. protection
Answer» B. projection
37.

The term cardinal trait, used by Allport in his personality theory, means

A. a dominant characteristic of the individual
B. a “:red flag” for counselors
C. a highly developed value system
D. one of five or ten characteristics that best describe an individual
Answer» A. a dominant characteristic of the individual
38.

A counselor whose methods are based on learning theory approaches treatment

A. with an emphasis on rational thinking
B. by focusing on emotional content
C. from a behvaioural standpoint
D. in a holistic manner
Answer» C. from a behvaioural standpoint
39.

Lewin theorizes that an individual’s behaviour is a function of the personal and his or her psychological environment, or life space. This approach to human development may be called

A. psychosocialogical
B. phenomenological
C. rational-emotive
D. cognitive-behavioural
Answer» B. phenomenological
40.

_____________ may be either basic, additive, or subtractive.

A. positive regard
B. attending
C. consultation
D. empathy
Answer» D. empathy
41.

Counselors who consistently behave in accordance with their own values and perceptions are exhibiting the trait called_______________.

A. empathy
B. transference
C. intimacy
D. genuineness
Answer» D. genuineness
42.

Counselors who fear rejection or fear closeness and affection may have difficulty developing ______________________ in the helping relationship.

A. attending
B. intimacy
C. transference
D. positive regard
Answer» B. intimacy
43.

The approach used by__________ is very effective for treating depression.

A. adler
B. beck
C. freud
D. jung
Answer» B. beck
44.

When a client directs toward the counselor feelings that were once attached to a significant other, ______________ takes place.

A. reflection
B. libido
C. transference
D. trustworthiness
Answer» C. transference
45.

The __________ holds that individual are essentially good in nature, with a tendency toward growth and productivity.

A. humanistic
B. behavioristic
C. client-centered view
D. neo-freudian
Answer» C. client-centered view
46.

Glasser’s Reality Therapy focuses on

A. cognitions
B. being
C. actualization
D. identity
Answer» D. identity
47.

Systematic desensitization is a technique whereby a client resolves irrational fears through gradual exposure to the fear-producing stimulus. It was first developed as a therapy technique by

A. rogers
B. wolpe
C. freud
D. bandura
Answer» B. wolpe
48.

Counselors need to pat attention not only to verbal nut also to nonverbal behaviour. They need to be aware that nonverbal

A. represent the client’s rational state
B. accent and/or contradict verbals
C. are identical across cultures
D. are valid only when they support verbals
Answer» B. accent and/or contradict verbals
49.

Carkhuff has developed scaled for measuring the core conditions for effective counseling. Which of the following is not one of the core conditions?

A. empathy
B. respect
C. insight
D. genuineness
Answer» C. insight
50.

Particular counseling activities are usually associated with their primary proponents. For example, psychodrama is to Moreno as hot seat is to

A. freud
B. glasser
C. adler
D. perls
Answer» D. perls
51.

Some counseling techniques are appropriate for individual counseling, while others apply more to group counseling. Which of the following counselor skills applied to individual as well as group counseling?

A. summarizing
B. consensus taking
C. moderating
D. linking
Answer» A. summarizing
52.

The counseling profession is based upon some general philosophical propositions. Which of these is not one of them?

A. counseling aims to promote human growth and development
B. counseling considers physical as well as psychosocial environment.
C. counseling facilitates person-environment fit.
D. counseling is a clearly defined helping relationship.
Answer» D. counseling is a clearly defined helping relationship.
53.

Which counselor intervention most closely follows client verbalizations?

A. reflection of feeling
B. confrontation
C. restatement of content
D. positive regard
Answer» C. restatement of content
54.

Which of these is not one of the core elements of the helping relationship?

A. psychodynamics
B. theory
C. social influence
D. human relations
Answer» A. psychodynamics
55.

Maslow believes that individuals are unable to reach self-actualization until they

A. face reality
B. identify irrational beliefs
C. satisfy lower order needs
D. resolve transference issues
Answer» C. satisfy lower order needs
56.

Counselors who choose their approach and techniques according to the needs and capacity of each individual client are said to be

A. humanistic
B. affective
C. cognitive
D. eclectic
Answer» D. eclectic
57.

The “mediator” is an important dimension of which type of consultation?

A. mental health
B. triadic
C. process
D. behavioural
Answer» B. triadic
58.

When a counselor’s response includes congruent ideas and feelings from another frame of reference to facilitate client exploration, Ivey would say the counselor is using

A. basic empathy
B. reflection of meaning
C. additive empathy
D. skill integration
Answer» C. additive empathy
59.

“Empty chair” is a group technique used by which type of group counselor?

A. gestalt
B. behavioural
C. transactional analysis
D. adlerian
Answer» A. gestalt
60.

Johari’s window is a technique used to indicate differences in.

A. cohesion
B. orientation
C. openness
D. behaviour
Answer» C. openness
61.

Which type of group counselor views people as basically positive and moving toward actualization?

A. behavioural
B. group centered
C. adlerian
D. psychoanalytic
Answer» B. group centered
62.

Oral or written behavioural agreements in groups counseling are referred to as

A. trust
B. issue
C. contracts
D. conclusions
Answer» C. contracts
63.

Brainstorming is a process used by groups for problem solving. Which of these is not a characteristic of brain storming?

A. there is a time limit
B. ideas are critically evaluated
C. quantity of ideas is foremost
D. creativity overrides practicality
Answer» A. there is a time limit
64.

In rational-emotive and cognitive- behavioural therapy groups the focus is more on thoughts than on feelings. These techniques help people become aware of their

A. self-denial
B. defenses
C. self-talk
D. depression
Answer» C. self-talk
65.

Self-disclosure involves

A. “war stories”
B. sharing self-knowledge with the group
C. dumping negative feelings on the group
D. “letting it all hang out”
Answer» B. sharing self-knowledge with the group
66.

When a group member projects feelings deriving from past relationship onto the therapist, it is called

A. counter transference
B. transference
C. reframing
D. confrontation
Answer» B. transference
67.

Confidentiality may be breached by a counselor

A. when ordered by the court
B. when a member is no longer part of the group
C. to the parents or spouse of the group members
D. under no circumstances
Answer» A. when ordered by the court
68.

Role playing is an effective technique used in group counselling. Which of the following is not a benefit of role playing?

A. practicing new skills
B. identifying effective and in effective behaviors
C. escaping from being oneself
D. preparing for real-life situations
Answer» C. escaping from being oneself
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