280+ Decision Science Solved MCQs

1.

The application of OR techniques involves ………… approach

A. Individual
B. Team
C. Critical
D. None of the above
Answer» B. Team
2.

Opportunity loss refers to

A. the expected value of a bad decision.
B. the expected loss from a bad decision.
C. the difference between the actual payoff and the optimal payoff.
D. the regret from not having made a decision.
Answer» C. the difference between the actual payoff and the optimal payoff.
3.

All of the following are steps in the decision-making process EXCEPT:

A. Define the problem
B. Compute the posterior probabilities
C. Identify possible outcomes
D. List payoffs
Answer» B. Compute the posterior probabilities
4.

Which of the following is (are) types of decision-making environments?

A. Decision making under uncertainty
B. Decision making under certainty
C. Decision making under risk
D. All of the above
Answer» D. All of the above
5.

A good decision always implies that we

A. will obtain the best final results
B. have used appropriate quantitative analysis.
C. have followed a logical process.
D. have based the decision on all available appropriate information.
Answer» C. have followed a logical process.
6.

Which of the following might be viewed as an "optimistic" decision criterion?

A. Hurwicz criterion
B. Maximin
C. Maximax
D. Minimax
Answer» C. Maximax
7.

Decision alternatives

A. should be identified before decision criteria are established.
B. are limited to quantitative solutions
C. are evaluated as a part of the problem definition stage.
D. are best generated by brain-storming.
Answer» A. should be identified before decision criteria are established.
8.

The equally likely decision criterion is also known as

A. Bayes'.
B. Laplace.
C. minimax.
D. Hurwicz.
Answer» B. Laplace.
9.

Which of the following is a property of all linear programming problems?

A. alternate courses of action to choose from
B. minimization of some objective
C. a computer program
D. usage of graphs in the solution
Answer» A. alternate courses of action to choose from
10.

A point that satisfies all of a problem's constraints simultaneously is a(n)

A. maximum profit point.
B. corner point.
C. intersection of the profit line and a constraint.
D. None of the above
Answer» D. None of the above
11.

The first step in formulating an LP problem is

A. Graph the problem.
B. Understand the managerial problem being faced.
C. Identify the objective and the constraints.
D. Define the decision variables.
Answer» B. Understand the managerial problem being faced.
12.

LP theory states that the optimal solution to any problem will lie at

A. the origin.
B. a corner point of the feasible region.
C. the highest point of the feasible region.
D. the lowest point in the feasible region.
Answer» B. a corner point of the feasible region.
13.

Consider the following linear programming problem:
Maximize 12X + 10Y
Subject to:
4X + 3Y ch7 <= 480
2X + 3Y ch7 <= 360
all variables >= 0
Which of the following points (X,Y) could be a feasible corner point?

A. (40,48)
B. (120,0)
C. (180,120)
D. (30,36)
Answer» B. (120,0)
14.

Management science and operations research both involve

A. qualitative managerial skills.
B. quantitative approaches to decision making.
C. operational management skills.
D. scientific research as opposed to applications.
Answer» B. quantitative approaches to decision making.
15.

Which of the following does not represent a factor a manager might consider when employing linear programming for a production scheduling?

A. labor capacity
B. employee skill levels
C. warehouse limitations
D. none of the above
Answer» D. none of the above
16.

The quantitative analysis approach requires

A. the manager's prior experience with a similar problem.
B. a relatively uncomplicated problem.
C. mathematical expressions for the relationships.
D. each of the above is true.
Answer» C. mathematical expressions for the relationships.
17.

In labor planning formulation, how would you write the constraint that there are only 10 fulltime tellers (labeled as T) available?

A. T + 10 > 0
B. T > 10
C. T ≤10
D. All of the above are correct ways.
Answer» C. T ≤10
18.

A type of linear programming problem that is used in marketing is called the

A. media selection problem.
B. Madison Avenue problem.
C. marketing allocation problem.
D. all of the above
Answer» A. media selection problem.
19.

The maximization or minimization of a quantity is the

A. goal of management science.
B. decision for decision analysis.
C. constraint of operations research.
D. objective of linear programming.
Answer» D. objective of linear programming.
20.

Decision variables

A. tell how much or how many of something to produce, invest, purchase, hire, etc.
B. represent the values of the constraints.
C. measure the objective function.
D. must exist for each constraint.
Answer» A. tell how much or how many of something to produce, invest, purchase, hire, etc.
21.

Which of the following is a valid objective function for a linear programming problem?

A. Max 5xy
B. Min 4x + 3y + (2/3)z
C. Max 5x2+ 6y2
D. Min (x1 + x2)/x3
Answer» B. Min 4x + 3y + (2/3)z
22.

Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. A feasible solution satisfies all constraints.
B. An optimal solution satisfies all constraints.
C. An infeasible solution violates all constraints.
D. A feasible solution point does not have to lie on the boundary of the feasible region.
Answer» C. An infeasible solution violates all constraints.
23.

A solution that satisfies all the constraints of a linear programming problem except the nonnegativity constraints is called

A. optimal.
B. feasible.
C. infeasible.
D. semi-feasible.
Answer» C. infeasible.
24.

In converting a less-than-or-equal constraint for use in a simplex table, we must add

A. a surplus variable.
B. a slack variable.
C. an artificial variable.
D. both a surplus and a slack variable.
Answer» B. a slack variable.
25.

Slack

A. Is the difference between the left and right sides of a constraint.
B. Is the amount by which the left side of a ≤ constraint is smaller than the right side.
C. Is the amount by which the left side of a ≥ constraint is larger than the right side.
D. Exists for each variable in a linear programming problem.
Answer» B. Is the amount by which the left side of a ≤ constraint is smaller than the right side.
26.

Unboundedness is usually a sign that the LP problem

A. has finite multiple solutions.
B. is degenerate.
C. contains too many redundant constraints.
D. has been formulated improperly.
Answer» D. has been formulated improperly.
27.

To find the optimal solution to a linear programming problem using the graphical method

A. find the feasible point that is the farthest away from the origin.
B. find the feasible point that is at the highest location.
C. find the feasible point that is closest to the origin.
D. None of the alternatives is correct.
Answer» D. None of the alternatives is correct.
28.

Which of the following special cases does not require reformulation of the problem in order to obtain a solution?

A. alternate optimality
B. infeasibility
C. unboundedness
D. each case requires a reformulation.
Answer» A. alternate optimality
29.

Whenever all the constraints in a linear program are expressed as equalities, the linear program is said to be written in

A. standard form.
B. bounded form.
C. feasible form.
D. alternative form.
Answer» A. standard form.
30.

In applying Vogel's approximation method to a profit maximization problem, row and column penalties are determined by:

A. finding the largest unit cost in each row or column.
B. finding the smallest unit cost in each row or column.
C. finding the difference between the two lowest unit costs in each row and column.
D. finding the difference between the two highest unit costs in each row and column.
Answer» D. finding the difference between the two highest unit costs in each row and column.
31.

The northwest corner rule requires that we start allocating units to shipping routes in the:

A. middle cell.
B. Lower right corner of the table.
C. Upper right corner of the table.
D. Upper left-hand corner of the table.
Answer» D. Upper left-hand corner of the table.
32.

In a transportation problem, when the number of occupied routes is less than the number of rows plus the number of columns -1, we say that the solution is:

A. Unbalanced.
B. Degenerate.
C. Infeasible.
D. Optimal.
Answer» C. Infeasible.
33.

The only restriction can be placed on the initial solution of a transportation problem is that:

A. must have nonzero quantities in a majority of the boxes.
B. all constraints must be satisfied.
C. demand must equal supply.
D. must have a number (equal to the number of rows plus the number of columns minus one) of boxes which contain nonzero quantities.
Answer» B. all constraints must be satisfied.
34.

The table represents a solution that is:

A. an initial solution.
B. Infeasible.
C. degenerate.
D. all of the above
Answer» C. degenerate.
35.

Which of the following is used to come up with a solution to the assignment problem?

A. MODI method
B. northwest corner method
C. stepping-stone method
D. Hungarian method
Answer» D. Hungarian method
36.

The graph that plots the utility value versus monetary value is called:

A. utility curve.
B. decision tree graph.
C. Laplace curve.
D. benefit curve.
Answer» A. utility curve.
37.

What is wrong with the following table?

A. The solution is infeasible.
B. The solution is degenerate.
C. The solution is unbounded.
D. Nothing is wrong.
Answer» A. The solution is infeasible.
38.

The solution presented in the following table is

A. infeasible
B. degenerate
C. unbounded
D. Optimal
Answer» D. Optimal
39.

The solution shown was obtained by Vogel's approximation. The difference between the objective function for this solution and that for the optimal is

A. 40
B. 60
C. 80
D. 100
Answer» C. 80
40.

Which method usually gives a very good solution to the assignment problem?

A. northwest corner rule
B. Vogel's approximation method
C. MODI method
D. stepping-stone method
Answer» B. Vogel's approximation method
41.

Infeasibility means that the number of solutions to the linear programming models that satisfies all constraints is

A. at least 1.
B. 0.
C. an infinite number.
D. at least 2.
Answer» B. 0.
42.

The stepping-stone method requires that one or more artificially occupied cells with a flow of zero be created in the transportation tableau when the number of occupied cells is fewer than

A. m + n − 2
B. m + n − 1
C. m + n
D. m + n + 1
Answer» B. m + n − 1
43.

The per-unit change in the objective function associated with assigning flow to an unused arc in the transportation simplex method is called the

A. net evaluation index.
B. degenerate value.
C. opportunity loss.
D. simplex multiplier.
Answer» A. net evaluation index.
44.

The difference between the transportation and assignment problems is that

A. total supply must equal total demand in the transportation problem
B. the number of origins must equal the number of destinations in the transportation problem
C. each supply and demand value is 1 in the assignment problem
D. there are many differences between the tr
Answer» A. total supply must equal total demand in the transportation problem
45.

An example of a heuristic is the

A. minimum-cost method.
B. stepping-stone method.
C. Hungarian method.
D. MODI method.
Answer» A. minimum-cost method.
46.

A solution to a transportation problem that has less than m + n − 1 cells with positive allocations in the transportation table is

A. an optimal solution.
B. an initial feasible solution.
C. a minimum-cost solution.
D. a degenerate solution.
Answer» D. a degenerate solution.
47.

Using the transportation simplex method, the optimal solution to the transportation problem has been found when

A. there is a shipment in every cell.
B. more than one stepping-stone path is available.
C. there is a tie for outgoing cell.
D. the net evaluation index for each unoccupied cell is ≥ 0.
Answer» D. the net evaluation index for each unoccupied cell is ≥ 0.
48.

Identifying the outgoing arc in Phase II of the transportation simplex method is performed using the

A. minimum cost method.
B. MODI method.
C. stepping-stone method.
D. matrix reduction method.
Answer» C. stepping-stone method.
49.

To use the transportation simplex method, a transportation problem that is unbalanced requires the use of

A. artificial variables.
B. one or more transshipment nodes.
C. a dummy origin or destination.
D. matrix reduction.
Answer» C. a dummy origin or destination.
50.

The problem which deals with the distribution of goods from several sources to several destinations is the

A. maximal flow problem
B. transportation problem
C. assignment problem
D. shortest-route problem
Answer» B. transportation problem
51.

The parts of a network that represent the origins are

A. the capacities
B. the flows
C. the nodes
D. the arcs
Answer» C. the nodes
52.

The optimal solution is found in an assignment matrix when the minimum number of straight lines needed to cover all the zeros equals

A. (the number of agents) − 1.
B. (the number of agents).
C. (the number of agents) + 1
D. (the number of agents) + (the number of tasks).
Answer» B. (the number of agents).
53.

The objective of the transportation problem is to

A. identify one origin that can satisfy total demand at the destinations and at the same time minimize total shipping cost.
B. minimize the number of origins used to satisfy total demand at the destinations.
C. minimize the number of shipments necessary to satisfy total demand at the destinations.
D. minimize the cost of shipping products from several origins to several destinations.
Answer» D. minimize the cost of shipping products from several origins to several destinations.
54.

The MODI method is used to

A. identify an outgoing arc.
B. identify an incoming arc.
C. identify unoccupied cells.
D. identify an initial feasible solution.
Answer» B. identify an incoming arc.
55.

Which of the following is not true regarding the linear programming formulation of a transportation problem?

A. Costs appear only in the objective function.
B. The number of variables is (number of origins) × (number of destinations).
C. The number of constraints is (number of origins) × (number of destinations).
D. The constraints' left-hand side coefficients are either 0 or 1.
Answer» C. The number of constraints is (number of origins) × (number of destinations).
56.

In the general linear programming model of the assignment problem,

A. one agent can do parts of several tasks.
B. one task can be done by several agents.
C. each agent is assigned to its own best task.
D. one agent is assigned to one and only one task.
Answer» D. one agent is assigned to one and only one task.
57.

Which of the following is not true regarding an LP model of the assignment problem? ]

A. Costs appear in the objective function only.
B. All constraints are of the ≥ form.
C. All constraint left-hand side coefficient values are 1.
D. All decision variable values are either 0 or 1.
Answer» B. All constraints are of the ≥ form.
58.

The assignment problem constraint x31 + x32 + x33 + x34 ≤ 2 means

A. agent 3 can be assigned to 2 tasks.
B. agent 2 can be assigned to 3 tasks.
C. a mixture of agents 1, 2, 3, and 4 will be assigned to tasks.
D. there is no feasible solution.
Answer» A. agent 3 can be assigned to 2 tasks.
59.

The assignment problem is a special case of the

A. transportation problem.
B. transshipment problem.
C. maximal flow problem.
D. shortest-route problem.
Answer» A. transportation problem.
60.

The field of management science

A. concentrates on the use of quantitative methods to assist in decision making.
B. approaches decision making rationally, with techniques based on the scientific method.
C. is another name for decision science and for operations research.
D. each of the above is true.
Answer» D. each of the above is true.
61.

Identification and definition of a problem

A. cannot be done until alternatives are proposed.
B. is the first step of decision making.
C. is the final step of problem solving.
D. requires consideration of multiple criteria.
Answer» B. is the first step of decision making.
62.

The quantitative analysis approach requires

A. the manager’s prior experience with a similar problem.
B. a relatively uncomplicated problem.
C. mathematical expressions for the relationships.
D. each of the above is true.
Answer» C. mathematical expressions for the relationships.
63.

Arcs in a transshipment problem

A. must connect every node to a transshipment node.
B. represent the cost of shipments.
C. indicate the direction of the flow.
D. All of the alternatives are correct.
Answer» C. indicate the direction of the flow.
64.

A physical model that does not have the same physical appearance as the object being modeled is

A. an analog model.
B. an iconic model.
C. a mathematical model.
D. a qualitative model.
Answer» A. an analog model.
65.

George Dantzig is important in the history of management science because he developed

A. the scientific management revolution.
B. World War II operations research teams.
C. the simplex method for linear programming.
D. powerful digital computers.
Answer» C. the simplex method for linear programming.
66.

A model that uses a system of symbols to represent a problem is called

A. mathematical.
B. iconic.
C. analog.
D. constrained.
Answer» A. mathematical.
67.

The number of units shipped from origin i to destination j is represented by

A. xij.
B. xji.
C. cij.
D. cji.
Answer» A. xij.
68.

The range of feasibility measures

A. the right-hand-side values for which the objective function value will not change.
B. the right-hand-side values for which the values of the decision variables will not change.
C. the right-hand-side values for which the dual prices will not change.
D. each of the above is true.
Answer» C. the right-hand-side values for which the dual prices will not change.
69.

The amount that the objective function coefficient of a decision variable would have to improve before that variable would have a positive value in the solution is the

A. dual price.
B. surplus variable.
C. reduced cost.
D. upper limit.
Answer» C. reduced cost.
70.

The values in the c j - z j , or net evaluation, row indicate

A. the value of the objective function.
B. the decrease in value of the objective function that will result if one unit of the variable corresponding to the jth column of the A matrix is brought into the basis.
C. the net change in the value of the objective function that will result if one unit of the variable corresponding to the jth column of the A matrix is brought into the basis.
D. the values of the decision variables.
Answer» C. the net change in the value of the objective function that will result if one unit of the variable corresponding to the jth column of the A matrix is brought into the basis.
71.

In the simplex method, a tableau is optimal only if all the cj – zj values are

A. zero or negative.
B. zero.
C. negative and nonzero.
D. positive and nonzero.
Answer» A. zero or negative.
72.

For the basic feasible solution to remain optimal

A. all cj - zj values must remain ≤ 0.
B. no objective function coefficients are allowed to change.
C. the value of the objective function must not change.
D. each of the above is true.
Answer» A. all cj - zj values must remain ≤ 0.
73.

The dual variable represents

A. the marginal value of the constraint
B. the right-hand-side value of the constraint
C. the artificial variable
D. the technical coefficient of the constraint
Answer» A. the marginal value of the constraint
74.

The parts of a network that represent the origins are

A. the axes
B. the flow
C. the nodes
D. the arrows
Answer» C. the nodes
75.

Slack

A. is the difference between the left and right sides of a constraint.
B. is the amount by which the left side of a < constraint is smaller than the right side.
C. is the amount by which the left side of a > constraint is larger than the right side.
D. exists for each variable in a linear programming problem.
Answer» B. is the amount by which the left side of a < constraint is smaller than the right side.
76.

The critical path

A. is any path that goes from the starting node to the completion node.
B. is a combination of all paths.
C. is the shortest path.
D. is the longest path.
Answer» D. is the longest path.
77.

Operations research analysts do not

A. Predict future operations
B. Build more than one model
C. Collect relevant data
D. Recommend decision and accept
Answer» A. Predict future operations
78.

Decision variables are

A. Controllable
B. Uncontrollable
C. Parameters
D. None of the above
Answer» A. Controllable
79.

A model is

A. An essence of reality
B. An approximation
C. An idealization’
D. All of the above
Answer» D. All of the above
80.

A physical model is an example of

A. An iconic model
B. An analogue model
C. A verbal model
D. A mathematical model
Answer» A. An iconic model
81.

Every mathematical model

A. Must be deterministic
B. Requires computer aid for solution.
C. Represents data in numerical form
D. All of the above
Answer» C. Represents data in numerical form
82.

Operations research approach is

A. Multi disciplinary
B. Scientific
C. Intuitive
D. All of the above
Answer» A. Multi disciplinary
83.

In an assignment problem,

A. one agent can do parts of several tasks.
B. one task can be done by several agents.
C. each agent is assigned to its own best task.
D. None of the alternatives is correct.
Answer» D. None of the alternatives is correct.
84.

An optimization model

A. Mathematically provides best decision
B. Provides decision with limited context
C. Helps in evaluating various alternatives constantly
D. All of the above
Answer» D. All of the above
85.

Operations research is applied

A. Military
B. Business
C. Administration’
D. All of the above
Answer» D. All of the above
86.

Operations Research techniques helps to find ………..solution

A. Feasible
B. Non feasible
C. Optimal
D. Non optimal
Answer» C. Optimal
87.

OR provides solution only if the elements are

A. Quantified
B. Qualified
C. Feasible
D. Optimal
Answer» A. Quantified
88.

………. Theory is an important operations research technique to analyze the queuing behaviour.

A. Waiting line
B. Net work
C. Decision
D. Simulation
Answer» A. Waiting line
89.

………… model involves all forms of diagrams

A. iconic
B. mathematical
C. analogue
D. schematic
Answer» A. iconic
90.

. …. Is known as symbolic model

A. Iconic
B. Mathematical
C. Analogue
D. None of the above
Answer» B. Mathematical
91.

A map indicates roads, highways, towns and the interrelationship is an ……model

A. Iconic
B. mathematical
C. analogue
D. none of the above
Answer» C. analogue
92.

Constraints in an LP model represent

A. Limitations
B. Requirements
C. Balancing limitation
D. all of the above
Answer» D. all of the above
93.

Linear programming is a

A. Constraint optimization technique
B. Technique for economic allocation of limited resources.
C. Mathematical technique
D. all of the above
Answer» D. all of the above
94.

A constraint in an LP model restricts

A. Value of objective function
B. Value of decision variable
C. Use of available resource
D. all of the above
Answer» D. all of the above
95.

……….. is an important Operations research technique to be used for determining optimal allocation of limited resources to meet the given objectives.

A. Waiting line theory
B. Net work analysis
C. Decision analysis
D. Linear programming
Answer» D. Linear programming
96.

The best use of linear programming technique is to find an optimal use of

A. Money
B. Man power
C. Machine
D. all of the above
Answer» D. all of the above
97.

Given the following table that presents the solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate, on the average, how many customers are in the system?

A. 0.893
B. 0.714
C. 1.607
D. 0.375
Answer» C. 1.607
98.

Given the following table that presents the solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate, on the average, how many minutes does a customer spend in the service facility?

A. 0.893 minutes
B. 0.321 minutes
C. 0.714 minutes
D. 1.607 minutes
Answer» B. 0.321 minutes
99.

Given the following table that presents the solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate, what percentage of available service time is actually used?

A. 0.217
B. 0.643
C. 0.321
D. none of the above
Answer» D. none of the above
100.

Which of the following is usually the most difficult cost to determine?

A. service cost
B. facility cost
C. calling cost
D. waiting cost
Answer» D. waiting cost
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