# 510+ Physical Geography Solved MCQs

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301.

## The natural gaps across the mountains which provide routes are called –

A. Peaks
B. Dunes
C. Plateaus
D. Passes
Explanation: A Mountain pass is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history, and have played a key role in trade, war, and migration.
302.

## The word `dendlitic' is associated with—

A. wind
B. waves
C. rivers
D. glaciers
Explanation: Dendritic drainage systems are the most common form of drainage system, The term Dendritic comes from the Latin word "dendron", meaning tree, due to the resemblance of the system to a tree. In a dendritic system there is one main river (like the trunk of a tree), which is joined and formed by many smaller tributary rivers. Dendritic systems form in V-shaped valleys; as a result, the rock types must be impervious and non-porous.
303.

## When the earth is at the maximum distance from the Sun, it is called–

A. Aphelion
B. Perihelion
C. Equinox
D. Sidereal
Explanation: Aphelion is the point in the path of a celestial body (as a planet) that is farthest from the sun. Its opposite is Perihelion which is the point on its orbit when the Earth is closest to the sun.
304.

## Suppose if we measure the time lapse between the two Sunsets by sitting in the beach, from this we can estimate –

A. The distance between the sun and the earth
B. The depth of the ocean
C. The radius of the earth
D. The radius of the sun
Explanation: A method is described whereby, using primitive equipment anyone can measure the size of the earth to an accuracy of order of magnitude 10% by observing two sunsets in the space of a few seconds.
305.

## What is the International Date Line?

A. It is the equator
B. It is the 0° longitude
C. It is the 90° east longitude
D. It is the 180° longitude
Answer» D. It is the 180° longitude
Explanation: The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, that runs from the north to the south pole and demarcates one calendar day from the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° longitude but it deviates to pass around some territories and island groups.
306.

## Mushroom Rocks are the typical land forms seen in –

A. River Valleys
B. Mountain tops
C. Coastal areas
D. Deserts
Explanation: A mushroom rock, also called rock pedestal or a pedestal rock, is a naturally occurring rock whose shape, as its name implies, strikingly resembles a mushroom. Usually found in desert areas, these rocks are formed over thousands of years when wind erosion of an isolated rocky outcrop progresses at a different rate at its bottom to that at its top.
307.

## Basaltic lava is found in the –

A. Deccan Trap
B. Himalayas
C. Indo-Gangetic Plain
D. North-Eastern Hills
Explanation: The Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (between 17°-24°N, 73°- 74°E) and one of the largest volcanic features on Earth. They consist of multiple layers of solidified flood basalt that together are more than 2,000 in (6,562 ft) thick and cover an area of 500,000 km2 (193,051 sq mi) and a volume of 512,000 km3 (123,000 cu mi). The term "trap", used in geology for such rock formations, is derived from the Swedish word for stairs and refers to the step-like hills forming the landscape of the region.
308.

## The atmospheric layer farthest from the Earth's surface is known as–

A. Stratosphere
B. Exosphere
C. Ionosphere
D. (4)Mesosphere
Explanation: The Radio waves are reflected back to Earth in the Ionosphere which is anelectrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere. This process is used to communicate beyond the horizon, at intercontinental distances, mostly in the shortwave frequency bands.
309.

## The climatic zones are classified on the basis of –

A. distance from the equator
B. elevation
C. rainfall
D. distance from the sea
Explanation: The climatic zones are classified on the basis of maximum and minimum temperatures and the temperature range as well as the total and seasonal distribution of precipitation. Based on these parameters, the most commonly used classification scheme was originally developed by Wladimir Koppen.
310.

## The lowest layer of the atmosphere is :

A. Stratosphere
B. Thermosphere
C. Troposphere
D. Mesosphere
Explanation: The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere. The air is very well mixed and the temperature decreases with altitude.
311.

## Trade winds blow from the –

A. equatorial low pressure
B. polar high pressure
C. subtropical high pressure
D. subpolar low pressure
Explanation: Wind flows outward down the pressure gradient away from the subtropical highs. As it does so, it encounters the CoriolisEffect caused by the rotation of the Earth. This force causes the winds in the Northern Hemisphere to move from the east towards the west below the subtropical high, and from the west towards the east above the subtropical high. The opposite is true in the Southern Hemisphere. Above the subtropical high winds move from east to west, and below the subtropical high winds move from west to the east.
312.

## Equatorial regions experience –

A. warm and dry climate
B. hot and humid climate
C. wet and windy climate
D. moderately pleasant climate
Answer» B. hot and humid climate
Explanation: The temperature of the equatorial regions is hot throughout the year, with a very low temperature range usually of less than 3 degrees celsius. Tropical rainforest climate is a type of tropical climate in which there is little or no dry season - all months have mean precipitation values of at least 60 mm. Tropical rainforest climates have no pronounced summer or winter; it is typically hot and wet throughout the year and rainfall is both heavy and frequent.
313.

## The Sargasso sea is situated in the –

A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Pacific Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Arctic Ocean
Explanation: The Sargasso Sea is a region in the gyre in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. The Sargasso Sea is home to seaweed of the genus Sargassum (origin of its name), which floats en masse on the surface there.
314.

## The eastward continuation of the Brazil current is called:

A. South Atlantic drift
B. Counter Equatorial drift
C. West Atlantic drift
D. North Atlantic drift
Explanation: The eastward continuation of the Brazil Current is called the South Atlantic Drift. It is also known as the West Wind Drift because it forms at 40° South latitude due to the impact of the Westerlies. The eastward movement is due to the Earth's rotation.
315.

## Sea breeze is formed during –

A. Day time
B. Night time
C. Both
D. Seasonal
Explanation: Sea breezes and all other winds blow from more atmospheric pressure to less atmospheric pressure. Water heats up and cools down slower than land. During the day, the land is heated up and is less dense than the water while at night, the water is less dense than the land. The more denser it is, the more the atmospheric pressure there is. Therefore, sea breezes occur during the day but not at night.
316.

## The coral reefs are the marine counterparts of –

A. Temperate forests
B. Tropical rain forests
C. Savannahs
D. Scrubland
Explanation: The term "coral reef' generally refers to a marine ecosystem in which the main organisms are corals that house algal symbionts within their tissues. These ecosystems require: 1) fully marine waters; 2) warm temperatures; and 3) ample sunlight. They are therefore restricted to shallow waters of tropical and subtropical regions.
317.

## The sea bed sloping gradually and bordering the continent is known as:

A. Coast
B. Continental Shelf
C. Continental Platform.
D. Continental Slope.
Explanation: The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. Much of the shelf was exposed during glacial periods, but is now submerged under relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs, and was almost similarly submerged during other interglacial periods. The continental margin, between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile or seaiment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise.
318.

## A special type of well in which water rises automatically under the pressure of a column of water to the ground surface through a hole is known as –

A. Artisian well
B. Spring
C. Hot spring
D. Geyser
Explanation: An artesian well is a pumpless water source that uses pipes to allow underground water that is under pressure to rise to the surface. This type of well seems to defy gravity because the pressure that builds up between layers of rock gets relieved when the water finds a path to the open air. In addition, the water has been naturally filtered because It passes through porous rock as it seeps into the Earth to reach the aquifer, which is the underground water source.
319.

## The soil conservation method in which mountain slope is cut into step is –

A. Contour ploughing
B. Cover planting
C. Strip cropping
D. Terracing
Explanation: In agriculture, a terist is a piece of sloped plane that has been landscaped into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for thepurposes of more effective farming. This type of landscaping, therefore, is called terracing. Graduated terrace steps are commonly used to farm on hilly or mountainous terrain. Terraced fields decrease erosion and surface run off and are effective for growing crops requiring much water, such as rice.
320.

## For the cultivation of Tobacco the soil should be rich in –

A. calcareous matter
B. nitrogen
C. organic content
D. potash
Explanation: Tobacco is a crop that needs significant amounts of potassium. It is a fast growing plant between 80 and 150 days, with a high daily potassium requirement. Potash is the common name for various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. In some rare cases, potash can be formed with traces of organic materials such as plant remains, and this was the major historical source for it before the industrial era.
321.

## Evergreen rain forest is mainly found in regions having well distributed annual rainfall –

A. Below 50 cm
B. 50-100 cm
C. 100-200 cm
D. More than 200 cm
Answer» D. More than 200 cm
Explanation: Tropical evergreen forests are usually found in areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall and having a temperature of 15 °C to 30 °C. They occupy about seven per cent of the Earth's land surface and harbour more than half of the world's plants and animals
322.

## Mangrove forests occur in –

A. high mountains
B. snowy plains
C. coastal swamps
D. interior plateaus
Explanation: Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics - mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. There are about 80 different species of mangrove trees. All of these trees grow in areas with low-oxygen soil, where slow-moving waters allow fine sediments to accumulate.
323.

## In order to prevent the expansion of deserts, trees are planted in strips or blocks with the shortest trees on the desert side and tallest on the other side. Such plantation is called?

A. shelter belts
B. agroforests
C. wind breaks
D. social forests
Explanation: A windbreak or shelterbelt is a plantation usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion. They are commonly planted around the edges of fields on farms. If designed properly, windbreaks around a home can reduced the cost of heating and cooling and save energy. Windbreaks are also planted to help keep snow from drifting onto roadways and even yards. Other benefits include providing habitat for wildlife and in some regions the trees are harvested for wood products.
324.

## Spot the odd item in the following :

A. Basalt
B. Ruby
C. Emerald
D. Sapphire
Explanation: Emerald, together with ruby and sapphire, form the "big three" of colored stones or gems which are all metamorphic in nature. Basalt is an igneous rock.
325.

## Which of the following is an organic rock?

A. Marble
B. Coal
C. Granite
D. Slate
Explanation: Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms mainly from plant debris. The plant debris usually accumulates in a swamp environment.
326.

## The rapid sliding of large masses of bed rocks is called :

A. Landslide
B. Earthquake
C. Weathering
D. Mass wasting
Explanation: The rapid sliding of large masses of bed rocks is called Landslide.
327.

## Which type of lake is formed by volcanic activities?

A. Caldera lake
B. Karst lake
C. Lagoon
D. Fresh water lake
Explanation: Caldera refers to a large basin- shaped Crater that is bound by steep cliffs. The Caldera best known in North America is Crater Lake.
328.

## Natural embankments found on upper valley sides are-known as –

A. high banks
B. levees
C. bunds
D. ridge
Explanation: A levee is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill orwall, which regulates water levels. It is usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low lying coastlines.
329.

## River erosion is at its greatest where river's –

A. depth is more
C. flow is fast
Explanation: The outer bank (called a cut bank) has the greatest erosion because the water is flowing faster along the outer bank than the inner bank. The slower water allows sediment to be deposited (called a point bar).
330.

## In which of the following is the Great Barrier Reef located?

A. Coral Sea
B. Solomon Sea
C. Bismarck Sea
D. Arafura Sea
Explanation: The Great Barrier Reef is in the Coral Sea, on Australia's north-eastern coast. It stretches more than 2,300 km along the state of Queensland's coastline, beginning at the tip of Cape York Peninsula in the north and extending down to Bundaberg in the south. The Great Barrier Reef is ideal for Cairns Scuba Diving.
331.

## Atmospheric temperature increasing at the higher altitudes is called –

B. Inversion
C. Conduction
D. Convection
Explanation: The reversal of the normal behaviour of temperature in the troposphere in which a layer of cool air at the surface is overlain by a layer of warmer air is known as temperature inversion. Inversions play an important role in determining cloud forms, precipitation, and visibility.
332.

## Which of the following reasons is responsible for lack of vegetation in the deserts?

A. Heavy volume of sands
B. Absence of B-horizon in the soil
C. High temperature
D. Lack of rainfall
Explanation: A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs arid consequently living conditions arc hostile for plant and animal life. Lack of or insufficient precipitation is the main reason behind the lack of vegetation.
333.

## Which of the following winds is called anti-trade wind? (1)

A. Chinook
B. Cyclone
C. Typhoon
D. Westerlies
Explanation: Westerlies are rather stormy and variable though the main direction remains from west to east. But as their general direction is from the west, they are called the "Westerlies". They are also known as "AntiTrade Winds", because their movement is in the opposite direction from that of the trade wind.
334.

## The solar radiation coming to Earth is called –

B. Insolation
C. Sunshine
Explanation: Insolation is the solar radiation that reaches the earth's surface. It is measured by the amount of solar energy received per square centimetre per minute. Insolation affects temperature. The more the insolation, the higher the temperature. In any given day, the strongest insolation is received at noon. The insolation into a surface is largest when the surface directlyfaces the Sun. As the angle increases between the direction at a right angle to the surface and the direction of the rays of sunlight, the insolation is reduced in proportion to the cosine of the angle.
335.

## The rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day called –

A. Tide
B. Ocean current
C. Wave
D. Water cycle
Explanation: The rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day is called a tide. The tides are caused due to strong gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon on the earth's surface.
336.

## The deflection of the winds to the right in the northern hemisphere is caused by :

A. revolution of the earth
B. rotation of the earth
C. uneven heating of the earth
D. All the above
Answer» B. rotation of the earth
Explanation: If the Earth didn't rotate, winds would travel either north or south due to differences in temperature and pressure at different latitudes. But since the Earth does rotate, the Coriolis force deflects these winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The Coriolis Effect is caused by the rotation of the Earth and the inertia of the mass experiencing the effect. Because the Earth completes only one rotation per day, the Coriolis force is quite small, and its effects generally become noticeable only for motions occurring over large distances and long periods of time, such as large-scale movement of air in the atmosphere or water in the ocean.
337.

## Waves approaching the shore is known as –

A. Swash
B. Tsunami
C. Currents
D. Tide
Explanation: Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometers long, whereas normal ocean waves have a wavelength of only 30 or 40 metres), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell usually about 300 millimetres above the normal sea surface. They grow in height when they reach shallower water or the coast.
338.

## Atoll is a kind of –

A. sand-dune
B. lake
C. sandbar
D. inland sea
Explanation: Atoll is a coral island (or islands) that encircle a lagoon partially or completely. It is formed when the island sinks below the sea, and the barrier reef becomes an atoll enclosing an open lagoon. So in a way it is a kind of inland sea which is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during periods of high sea level.
339.

## A place where there is constant intermingling of salt water and fresh water is.

A. Estuary
B. Delta
C. Gulf
D. Bay
Explanation: Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and ocean environments and are subject to both marine influences, such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water; and riverine influences, such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The inflow of both seawater and freshwater provide high levels of nutrients in both the water column and sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world.
340.

## The deepest ocean of the world is –

A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Arctic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Pacific Ocean
Explanation: The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galapagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres (35,797 ft).
341.

## Mountain soil contains a lot of—

A. humus
B. clay
C. coase material
D. iron and aluminium salt
Explanation: The distribution of mountain soils is subject mainly to a vertical (elevation) zonation; the soils change with ascent into the mountains depending on changes in climatic conditions. Most mountain soils form on very steep slopes where, as a result of denudation processes, their shallowness, gravel-like quality, and wealth of primary minerals may be observed. Mountain soils are those which are found in depressions and valley basins or on slightly inclined mountain slopes. It consists of sandstones, clay, shales and limestones. It has the maximum humus content and is thus, very fertile. It is found in Himalayan regions and north-east India.
342.

## Which of the following methods does not help in conserving soil fertility and moisture?

A. Contour ploughing
B. Dry farming
C. Strip cropping
D. Shifting agriculture
Explanation: Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. It is also known as slash and burn cultivation. This system offer involves clearing of a piece of land followed by several years of wood harvesting or farming, until the soil loses fertility. Once the land becomes inadequate for crop production, it is left to be reclaimed by natural vegetation, or sometimes converted to a different long-term cyclical farming practice.
343.

## Source of energy in ecosystem is –

A. Sun
B. Green plants
C. Sugar produced in photosynthesis
D. ATP
Explanation: An ecosystem is a community of living and non-living things that work together. It includes soil, atmosphere, heat and light from the sun, water and living organisms.
344.

## Which one is not a non-conventional energy source?

A. Nuclear energy
B. Solar Energy
C. Wind energy
D. Tidal power
Explanation: 0
345.

## Day and Night are equal at the:

A. Prime Meridian
B. Antarctic
C. Poles
D. Eqator
Explanation: The equator receives equal day and night through-out the year because it does not tilt in relation to the sun's location. Because of the tilted axis of the Earth, the poles and locations away from the equator lean towards or away from the sun as an orbit is completed, while the equator stays in essentially the same location relative to the sun.
346.

## Which planet orbits closest to the earth?

A. Mars
B. Jupiter
C. Venus
D. Mercury
Explanation: Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 0.72 AU (108,000,000 km), and completes an orbit every 224.65 days. Although all planetary orbits are elliptical, Venus's orbit is the closest to circular, with an eccentricity of less than 0.01.
347.

## Solar energy is received by the earth through –

A. conduction
C. convection
D. refraction
Explanation: In physics, radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic, waves travel through vacuum, or through matter- containing media that are not required for their propagation. The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere.
348.

## Brightest planet in our solar system is –

A. Venus
B. Mercury
C. Mars
D. Jupiter
Explanation: Venus has the highest albedo of any planet in our solar system. Venus is so bright partly because it reflects over 70 per cent ofsunlight striking it. It owes its reflective ability to the fact that it's blanketed with clouds. Sunlight bouncing from these clouds is what makes Venus so bright.
349.

## The Milky Way Galaxy was first observed by –

A. Galileo
B. Maarten Schmidt
C. Marconi
D. Newton
Explanation: The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our solar system. This name derives from its appearance as a dim "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky, in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual stars. Observational evidence for the Milky Way being made up of distant stars first came when Galileo pointed his telescope towards the Milky Way, observing a large amount of faint stars.
350.

## In mountainous areas a natural cause for road blocks is often :

B. land slides
C. tree felling
D. traffic congestion
Explanation: Heavy rainfall often causes landslides in hilly regions blocking roads as a result and cutting off towns Huge amounts of debris block access, hampering traffic and affecting businesses.
351.

## Which of the following refers to the white salt which covers the land in some areas during dry season?

A. usar
B. reh
C. erg
D. reg
Explanation: Reh refers to a mixture of soluble sodium salts appearing as efflorescence on theground in arid or semiarid regions in India. It covers the land in the form of a white layer. It is also known as Kallar.
352.

## If speed of rotation of the earth increases, the weight of the body –

A. decreases
B. increases
C. remains the same
D. may increase or decrease
Explanation: The weight of a body on the earth is the amount of gravitational pull on it exerted by the earth. Similarly there is another force exerted on a body on earth, that is centrifugal force due to its rotation which tries to move the body away from the centre of the earth and its maximum at the equator as the velocity of rotation is maximum at the equator of the earth. The gravitational force is balanced by the centrifugal force. With the increase in the speed of rotation of the earth the body at the equator will come more under the influence of the centrifugal force and the weight of the body will seem to have decreased.
353.

## The land forms formed by wave erosion is :

A. Spit
B. Beach
C. Cave
D. Barrier island
Explanation: Cliffs, caves, arches, stacks are some of the landforms produced by wave erosion. Coves form where rock runs in bands horizontal to the direction of wave attack. There is a band of resistant rock closest to the sea and a band of less resistant rock inland. The waves seek out faults in the hard rock and erodes using the processes of abrasion/corrosion and hydraulic action through to the soft rock behind.
354.

## In a solar or lunar eclipse, the region of earth's shadow is divided into –

A. Five parts
B. Four parts
C. Two parts
D. Three parts
Explanation: An eclipse occurs when a star (such as Sun) aligns with two celestial bodies, such as a planet and a moon. The closer body casts a shadow that intersects the more distant body. This means that "things get dark." The region of shadow is divided into an umbra, where the light from the star is completely blocked, and a penumbra, where only a portion of the light is blocked. Beyond the end of the umbra is a region called the antumbra. For an observer inside the antumbra of a solar eclipse, for example, the moon appears smaller than the sun, resulting in an annular eclipse.
355.

## Rift Valley is formed –

A. between two anticlines
B. between two faults
C. erosion of synclinal basin
D. due to volcanic eruption
Explanation: A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault. It is formed by the subsidence of a segment of the Earth's crust between dip-slip, or normal, faults.
356.

## Mounds of sand formed by wind action are called

A. Cliffs
B. Cirques
C. Dunes
Explanation: Cliff is a high and extremely steep rock face that approaches the vertical, either inland or along a coastline. Cirque refers to a deep rounded hollow having steep sides, formed through erosion by snow and ice. Dune is a hill or ridge of sand accumulated and sorted by wind action.
357.

## The rate of deforestation is high in –

A. Tropical zone
B. Desert areas
C. Temperate zone
D. Boreal forest
Explanation: The rate of deforestation is high in Temperate Zone.
358.

## One of the following is not the result of underground water action –

A. Stalactites
B. Stalagmites
C. Sink holes
D. Fiords
Explanation: Geologically, a fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. A fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. Glacial melting is accompanied by rebound of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. Both the whole coast of Norway and the island of Greenland have many fjords.
359.

## The inner-most layer of the earth is known as –

A. Lithosphere
B. Mesosphere
C. Asthenosphere
D. Barysphere
Explanation: The inner core is the innermost physical layer of the Earth. The asthenosphere is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely-deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth. It lies below the lithosphere, at depths between 100 and 200 km below the surface, but perhaps extending as deep as 700 km.
360.

## The 'Pacific Ring of Fire' is associated with –

A. oil well fires
B. thermal power station
C. volcanoes and earthquakes
D. forest fires
Explanation: The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt. About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire.
361.

## Metamorphic rocks originate from—

A. igneous rocks
B. sedimentary rocks
C. both igneous and sedimentary rocks
D. None of these
Answer» C. both igneous and sedimentary rocks
Explanation: Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. How do sedimentary and igneous rocks change? The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure, which fosters heat build-up, and this causes them to change. If you exam metamorphic rock samples closely, you'll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock are.
362.

## The term 'epicentre' is associated with—

A. earthquake
B. folding
C. faulting
D. earth's interior
Explanation: The epicenter is the point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where anearthquake or underground explosion originates. In the case of earthquakes, the epicenter is directly above the point where the fault begins to rupture, and in most cases, it is the area of greatest damage. However, in larger events, the length of the fault rupture is much longer, and damage can be spread across the rupture zone.
363.

## Our atmosphere is divided into layers.

A. Two
B. Three
C. Four
D. Five
Explanation: Earth has five primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. From the Earth upwards, those layers are: Troposphere: 0 to 12 km: Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km; Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km; Thermosphere:80. to 700 km; Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km.
364.

## The forests which act as barriers against cyclones are :

A. Alpine forests
B. Mangrove forests
C. Evergreen forests
D. Monsoon forests
Explanation: Mangrove Forest acts as barriers against cyclones and other natural disasters like tidal waves and tropical storms. They act as live sea walls against disasters and help minimize damage done to property and life. They also slow soil erosion and stabilize tidal banks against rising sea level, another climate change hazard.
365.

## Cyclones are caused due to –

A. low pressure
B. high pressure
C. low temperature
D. high density
Explanation: Cyclones are huge revolving storms caused by winds blowing around a central area of low atmospheric pressure. In the northern hemisphere, cyclones are called hurricanes or typhoons and their winds blow in an anti-clockwise circle. In the southern hemisphere, these tropical storms arc known as cyclones, whose winds blow in a clockwise circle.
366.

A. A very high pressure centre
B. A very low pressure centre
C. A very high ocean wave
D. A planetary wind
Answer» B. A very low pressure centre
Explanation: A tornado is a closed low pressure circulation which is marked by a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. Low-pressure systems form under areas of wind divergence which occur in upper levels of the troposphere. The formation process of a low-pressure area is known as cyclogenesis.
367.

## If there is no carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere, the temperature of earth's surface would be –

A. dependent on the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere
B. higher than the present
C. less than the present
D. the same
Answer» C. less than the present
Explanation: If there is no carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere, the temperature of earth's surface would be less than the present because carbon emission in the atmosphere is one of the major causes of global warming.
368.

## Name the continent where 'Tundra' type of climate is not found –

A. Europe
B. Asia
C. Africa
D. North America
Explanation: The meaning of the word 'tundra' is 'a region in continents of Asia, Europe and North America, where the growth of trees is prevented due to low temperatures and permanently frozen subsoil'. These kinds of geographic areas are found near the North Pole and the South Pole. In physical-geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra. In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra.
369.

## Speed of wind is measured by –

A. barometer
B. hygrometer
C. thermometer
D. anemometer
Explanation: An anemometer is a device for measuring wind speed, and is a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, meaning wind, and is used to describe any airspeed measurement instrument used in meteorology or aerodynamics. The first known description of an anemometer was given by Leon Battista Alberti around 1450.
370.

## Trade winds are due to –

A. Conduction
B. Convection
D. Scattering
Explanation: The air moving across the surface towards the extra heated region is known as the trade winds. The region where the northern convective airflow meets the southern and the air starts heading up instead of across the surface is known as the doldrums by sailors. The upwelling warm moist air expands, cools anddrops heavy rain, but since it's moving up instead of across it won't fill sails.
371.

## The ocean which touches the Asian and American shores is-

A. Atlantic
B. Indian
C. Antarctic
D. Pacific
Explanation: The Pacific Ocean extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east. This largest division of the World Ocean and, in turn, the hydrosphere - covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined.
372.

## El Nino is –

A. a warm ocean current
B. sea storm
C. tropical disturbance
D. another name of typhoon
Answer» A. a warm ocean current
Explanation: El Nino (Spanish name for the male child), initially referred to a weak, warm current appearing annually around Christmas time along the coast of Ecuador and Peru and lasting only a few weeks to a month or more. Every three to seven years, an El Nino event may last for many months, having significant economic and atmospheric consequences worldwide.
373.

## Soil erosion on hill slopes can be checked by –

A. Afforestation
B. Terrace cultivation
C. Strip cropping
D. Contour ploughing
Explanation: Terrace farming is a type of farming that was developed first by the Incapeople. This method of farming uses "steps", called andenes that are built into the side of a mountain or hill. On each anden, various crops are planted, and when it rains, instead of washing away all of the nutrients in the soil, the nutrients are carried down to the next level. Additionally, these "steps" prevent a free flowing avalanche of water that would take plants with it and destroy the all of the crops on the hillside.
374.

## The crop mainly grown in hills is :

A. sweet corn
B. sweet jowar
C. sweet potato
D. sweet pea
Explanation: Sweet potato may be grown either on hills or beds. Rows need to be spaced 90-120 cm apart with plants spaced 30-40 cm apart in the row. It is known in Nepal as 'sakar kand.' It is grown both in the terai and the mid-hills throughout the country. It is the second most important root crop after potato in terms of production and area.
375.

## Dumping of solid waste in lowlying areas earth cover is called as :

A. Sanitary land filing
B. Open dumping
C. Composting
D. Incineration
Explanation: Sanitary landfills are low lying sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically. In high-income countries, the level of isolation achieved may be high.
376.

## The cause of loss of forest cover is –

A. Agriculture
B. Building Industry
C. Increasing population
D. Toursim & pilgrimage
Explanation: Deforestation is a consequence of a quantum jump in population and the consequent over- exploitation of our natural ecosystems for space, energy and materials. Expanding agriculture due to a burgeoning population base is one of the most important causes of deforestation. As demands on agricultural products rise more and more land is brought under cultivation for which forests are cleared, grass-lands ploughed, uneven grounds leveled, marshes drained and even land under water is reclaimed.
377.

## Coastal Andhra Pradesh and Orissa often face natural disasters due to –

A. Cyclones
B. Earthquakes
C. Landslides
Explanation: During summer, the Bay of Bengal is subject to intense heating, giving rise to humid and unstable air masses that produce cyclones. Widespread death and property destruction are reported every year in exposed coastal states such as Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. Although cyclones affect the entire coast of India, the East Coast is more prone compared to the West Coast. Out of the cyclones that develop in the Bay of Bengal, over 58 percent approach and cross the east coast in October and November.
378.

## A broad, low embankment built up along the banks of a river channel during floods is called

A. Delta
B. Levee
C. Flood Plain
D. Dune
Explanation: A levee, dike, dyke or flood bank is a broad, low embankment built up along thebanks of a river channel during floods. Levees are usually parallel to the way the river flows, so levees can help direct the flow of the river. Levees can also be artificially created or reinforced.
379.

## Which of the following is an alternative theory to the Big Bang theory developed in 1948, stating that the universe does not change even though it is expanding over time?

A. Oscillating Universe
C. Mirror Universe
D. Eternal Inflation
Explanation: The Steady State theory (also known as the Infinite Universe theory or continuous creation) was developed in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi and others as an alternative to the Big Bang theory. In the steady-state theory, the density of matter in the expanding universe remains unchanged due to a continuous creation of matter. It asserts that the observable universe is basically the same at any time as well as at any place.
380.

## The constellation `Sapta Rishi' is known to Westerners as the –

A. Seven Monks
B. Alpha Centauri
C. Big Dipper
D. Small Bear
Explanation: The Steady State theory (also known as the Infinite Universe theory or continuous creation) was developed in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi and others as an alternative to the Big Bang theory. In the steady-state theory, the density of matter in the expanding universe remains unchanged due to a continuous creation of matter. It asserts that the observable universe is basically the same at any time as well as at any place.
381.

## Isohels are the isopleths of –

A. sunshine
B. flowering time
C. rain
D. clouds
Explanation: An isohel is line drawn on a map connecting points that receive equal amounts of sunlight. It is derived from hellos, meaning 'Sun.'
382.

## Which one of the following is the largest planet?

A. Jupiter
B. Venus
C. Saturn
D. Uranus
Explanation: Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in the Solar System combined.
383.

## The largest planet in our solar system is

A. Mars
B. Jupiter
C. Saturn
D. Mercury
Explanation: Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and is the largest planet in the solar system. If Jupiter were hollow, more than one thousand Earths could fit inside. It also contains two and a half times the mass of all the other planets combined. It has a mass of 1.9 x kg and is 142,800 kilometers (88,736 miles) across the equator.
384.

## Equinox occurs when the sun is vertically above             .

A. Tropic of Capricorn
B. Tropic of Cancer
C. Poles
D. Equator
Explanation: An equinox is an astronomical event in which the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September. The equinoxes are the only times when the Sun is exactly overhead at a point on the equatorial line. On an equinox, day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet.
385.

## Nappe is a kind of –

A. fluvial feature
B. folded structure
C. erosional plain
D. delta region
Explanation: In geology, a nappe or thrust sheet is a large sheet like body of rock that has been moved more than 2 km or 5 km from its original position by faulting or folding. They form when a mass of rock is forced (or "thrust") over another rock mass, typically on a low angle fault plane. The resulting structure may include large- scale recumbent folds, shearing along the fault plane.
386.

## The area which is resistant to any massive structural transformation is called –

A. rigid mass
B. ancient landmass
C. tectonic plate
D. shield
Explanation: A shield is generally a large area of exposed Precambrian crystalline igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that form tectonically stable areas. They are resistant to geological structural transformation. They are normally the nucleus of continents.
387.

## Lake formed in a cut off river, meander is called:

A. Playa Lake
B. Meteoric Lake
C. Ox-Bow Lake
D. Crater Lake
Explanation: An oxbow lake is a U-shaped body of water formed when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off to create a lake. This landform is called an oxbow lake for the distinctive curved shape, named after part of a yoke for oxen.
388.

## Sandstone is metamorphosed to:

A. Shale
B. Slate
C. Quartzite
D. Marble
Explanation: Sandstone can be turned into a metamorphic rock by being either heated up to a point where it undergoes a significant change or subjected to high pressures, or subjected to chemically active fluids, or some combination thereof. A common result of the metamorphosis of sandstone is the creation of quartzite.
389.

## The greatest erosive power of a river is associated with –

A. gorges
B. meanders
C. inter-locking spurs
D. V-shaped valley
Explanation: Erosive power of a stream is proportional to the square of the velocity. Thus, when discharge increases, the depth increases and the velocity increases, resulting in dramatic increase of erosive power. As the volume flowing in a stream increases, the stream's erosive power also increases. At a bend in a stream the water's momentum carries the mass of the water against the outer bank. The greater depth on the outer side of the bend also leads to higher velocity at the outer bank. The greater velocity combined with the greater inertial force on the outer bank erodes a deeper channel. The result of all these actions is a meander
390.

## Prime Meridian passes through –

A. Greenwich
B. Ujjain
C. New York
D. Tokyo
Explanation: A prime meridian is a meridian, i.e. a line of longitude, at which longitude is defined to be 0°. An international conference in 1884 decided the prime meridian passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in southeast London, United Kingdom, known simply as the prime meridian
391.

## What percentage of world's freshwater is stored as glacial ice?

A. 50%
B. 10%
C. 70%
D. 30%
Explanation: About 70% of the world's fresh water is stored as glacial ice. Only 3% water of the earth is fresh, rest 97% salted. Of that 3%, over 2% is frozen in ice sheets and glaciers. Means less than 1% fresh water is found in lakes, rivers and underground.
392.

## The approximate circumference of the Earth is –

A. 13,000 km
B. 20,000 km
C. 25,000 km
D. 30,000 km
Explanation: The circumference of the earth at the equator is 24,901.55 miles (40,075.16 kilometers). But, if we measure the earth through the poles the circumference is a bit shorter - 24,859.82 miles (40,008 km). Thus, the earth is a tad wider than it is tall, giving it a slight bulge at the equator. This shape is known as an ellipsoid or more properly, geoid (earth-like).
393.

## Which one of the following is igneous rock?

A. Limestone
B. Granite
C. Marble
D. Slate
Explanation: Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire) is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic rock. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may form with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition.
394.

## How many minutes for each degree of longitude does the local time of any place vary from the Greenwich time?

A. Two minutes
B. Four minutes
C. Six minutes
D. Eight minutes
Explanation: The first of these ideas is the relationship between time and the rotation of the Earth. It takes an average time of 24 hours for the Earth to rotate 360 degrees. If you divide the number degrees in a circle by the number of hours in a day, we find that the Earth turns 15 degrees each hour. 360°/24 hours = 15° per hour. We can take this a step further and state that the Earth turns one degree in four minutes. 1 hour = 60 minutes / 15° = 4 minutes per degree
395.

## The Grand Canyon is located on the :

B. Rhine River
C. Tapi River
D. Niger River
Explanation: The Grand Canyon is a steep- sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in the United States in the state of Arizona. It is contained within and managed by Grand Canyon National Park, the Hualapai Tribal Nation, and the Havasupai Tribe. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area. A number of processes combined to create the views that we see in today's Grand Canyon. The most powerful force to have an impact on the Grand Canyon is erosion, primarily by water (and ice) and second by wind.
396.

## The vertical movement of air is termed as –

A. wind
B. air current
C. air turbulence
D. air mobility
Explanation: An updraught or downdraught is the vertical movement of air as a weather related phenomenon. Better known as air current, they can be caused by differences in temperature, pressure, or impurity concentration. Temperature differences can cause air currents because warmer air is less dense than cooler air, causing the warmer air to appear "lighter."Rising air is associated with turbulence as it creates a low pressure on the surface.
397.

## The atmospheric layer closest to the earth is:

A. Mesosphere
B. Hydrosphere
C. Troposphere
D. Ionosphere
Explanation: The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and aerosols. Most of the phenomena we associate with day-to-day weather occur in the troposphere.
398.

## Storms of gases are visible in the chromosphere of the Sun during –

A. Cyclones
B. Anticyclones
C. Lunar eclipse
D. Solar eclipse
Explanation: As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun. This can happen only at new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is fully obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses only part of the Sun is obscured. The moon blocks out the bulk of the sun allowing us to see the chromosphere and corona.
399.

## Recharging of water table depends on –

A. amount of rainfall
B. relief of the area
C. vegetation of the area
D. amount of percolation
Answer» B. relief of the area
Explanation: The water table may vary due to seasonal changes in precipitation, evapotranspiration, topography and structural geology. In undeveloped regions with permeablesoils that receive sufficient amounts of precipitation, the water table typically slopes toward rivers that act to drain the groundwater away and release the pressure in the aquifer for the relief of the area.
400.

A. Isohyet
B. Isobar
C. Isthumus
D. Isotherm