510+ Physical Geography Solved MCQs


The main source of usable water on the Earth is –

A. Oceans
B. Rivers
C. Underground water
D. Precipitation
Answer» C. Underground water
Explanation: Even though most of the Earth's surface is water, only 1% of it is fresh usable water. Ninety-seven percent of the Earth's water is saltwater, which contains too many minerals for humans to use untreated. Two percent of our water is "locked up" in ice caps and glaciers, leaving only one percent as usable fresh water. Groundwater compiises 0.62 per cent of water, followed by Freshwater Lakes: 0.009 per cent; and rivers: 0.0001 per cent.

Which of the following rivers lies in a rift valley?

A. Luni
B. Chambal
C. Sone
D. Tapti
Answer» D. Tapti
Explanation: There are three Peninsular rivers which flow in a rift valley. Narmada flows westward between the Satpura and Vindhya ranges. The Tapti River and Mahi River also flow through rift valleys, but between, different ranges.

'Flash floods' are associated with –

A. Thunderstorms
B. Cyclonic storms
C. Tsunami
D. Tornado
Answer» B. Cyclonic storms
Explanation: A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a severe thunderstorm, hurricane, tropical storm or cyclone, or melt- water from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields.

Tundras are –

A. Deciduous forests
B. Tropical rain forests
C. Cold deserts
D. Hot deserts
Answer» C. Cold deserts
Explanation: In physical geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. Rainfall and snowfall are generally slight due to the low vapor pressure of water in the chilly atmosphere, but as a rule potential evapotranspiration is extremely low, allowing soggy terrain of swamps and bogs even in places that get precipitation typical of deserts of lower and middle latitudes.

Hydraulic Action is a type of erosion caused by –

A. Running water
B. Wind
C. Glacier
D. None of these
Answer» A. Running water
Explanation: Hydraulic action is one of the main forms of river erosion (example, of erosion due to running water) in which the force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices. The pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away.

Which of the following is the newest geological era?

A. Permian
B. Triassic
C. Cretaceous
D. Jurassic
Answer» C. Cretaceous
Explanation: The correct chronological order of the geological eras (in million years before the present) are as follows:- Cretaceous: 72.1-145; Jurassic: 152.1-201.3; Triassic: 208.5-201.3; Permian: 254.2-298.9.

The largest forest which covers 25 percent of the world's forest land is :

A. The Tropical Rain forest
B. Taiga forest of Siberia
C. Monsoon forest
D. Temperate forests of Europe
Answer» B. Taiga forest of Siberia
Explanation: Taiga is the world's largest land biome. It makes up 29% of the world's forest cover. Also known as boreal forest or snow forest, it is characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches. The largest areas of Taiga are located in Russia and Canada.

Which of the following is called the twin of the earth?

A. Neptune
B. Venus
C. Mars
D. Saturn
Answer» B. Venus
Explanation: Venus is the second planet from the sun and a close neighbor to the earth. It was named after the Roman Goddess of Beauty. Venus is usually one the brightest objects in the sky, which might be the reason it got its name. It is quite similar to the planet earth mainly in its size and a few other characteristics which is why it is often considered the Earth's twin. However, surface conditions are not nearly the same making it a quite inhospitable environment.

Which amidst the following planets has its orbit closest to Sun?

A. Venus
B. Mars
C. Jupiter
D. Uranus
Answer» A. Venus
Explanation: Venus is the brightest planet in our sky and can sometimes be seen with the naked eye if we know where to look. It is the solar system's brightest planet — yellow clouds of sulfuric acid reflect the sun's light brightly and has its orbit closest to sun but only next to mercury.

The outermost layer of the Sun is called

A. Chromosphere
B. Photosphere
C. Corona
D. Lithosphere
Answer» C. Corona
Explanation: The outermost layer of the sun is the corona. Only visible during eclipses, it is a low density cloud of plasma with higher transparency than the inner layers. The white corona is a million times less bright than the inner layers of the sun, but is many times larger. A corona is a type of plasma "atmosphere" of the Sun or other celestial body, extending millions of kilometers into space, most easily seen duringa total solar eclipse, but also observable in a coronagraph.

Which planet is called evening star?

A. Mars
B. Mercury
C. Venus
D. Jupiter
Answer» C. Venus
Explanation: Venus "overtakes" the Earth every 584 days as it orbits the Sun. As it does so, it changes from the "Evening Star", visible after sunset, to the "Morning Star", visible before sunrise.

Light from the Sun reaches us in nearly

A. 8 min
B. 2 min
C. 6 min
D. 4 min
Answer» A. 8 min
Explanation: The sun's light takes about 8 minutes to reach the Earth after it has been emitted from the sun's surface. The time it takes for light to reach planets in our Solar System varies from about 3 minutes for Mercury, to about 5.3 hours for Pluto.

The disconnected lines drawn on a map for showing slope-

A. Bench marks
B. Contours
C. Form lines
D. Hachure
Answer» D. Hachure
Explanation: Hachures are short disconnected lines drawn on the map to depict the slope of the ground surface. They are drawn in rows; each row being disconnected from the other. They are short and closely spaced for steep slopes and relatively long and widely spaced for gentler slopes. Hachures are not drawn for leveled areas, such as flat valley or a plateau top.

If a star is bigger than Sun, but not more than twice as big, it will turn into a      

A. Pulsar
B. Maxima
C. Avenger
D. Discover
Answer» A. Pulsar
Explanation: If the star is about the mass of the Sun or less than that, it will turn into White Dwarfs. If the star is bigger than the Sun but not more than twice as big, it will turn into a Neutron Star or Pulsar. If the star is many times bigger than the Sun, it will turn into what is called a Black Hole.

When Granite rocks get metamorphosed, they form –

A. Quartzite
B. Gneiss
C. Marble
D. Slate
Answer» B. Gneiss
Explanation: Gneiss is a high grade metamorphic rock formed by the metamorphosis of granite which is a sedimentary rock. Gneiss is typically associated with major mountain building episodes. It is often foliated (composed of layers of sheet-like planar structures), characterized by alternating darker and lighter colored bands, called "gneissic banding".

Which planet in our solar system is nearly as big as the earth?

A. Mercury
B. Mars
C. Venus
D. Pluto
Answer» C. Venus
Explanation: Venus is often referred to as our sister planet because of similarities in size, mass, density and volume. It is believed that both planets share a common origin forming at the same time out of a condensing nebulosity around 4.5 billion years ago.

To which natural vegetation belt do Sal and Teak trees belong?

A. Temperate forests
B. Equatorial forests
C. Tropical deciduous forests
D. Mixed forests
Answer» C. Tropical deciduous forests
Explanation: The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. Deciduous trees predominate in most of these forests, and during the drought a leafless period occurs, which varies with species type. Teak and Sal, along with mango, bamboo, and rosewood, belong to the moist deciduous forests which shed their leaves in the dry season.

Which of the following types of soil is best suited for cotton cultivation?

A. Black
B. Red
C. Laterite
D. Mountain
Answer» A. Black
Explanation: Cotton needs a soil with a excellent water holding capacity and aeration and good drainage as it cannot withstand excessive moisture and water logging. The major groups of soils for cotton cultivation are the alluvial soils, black soils, and red sand loam. Black cotton soils are inorganic clays of medium to high compressibility and form a major soil group in India. They are characterized by high shrinkage and swelling properties. This Black cotton soils occurs mostly in the central and western parts and covers approximately 20% of the total area of India.

The soil which originate under tall- grass prairie vegetation is called–

A. Black soils
B. Chestnut soils
C. Chernozem soils
D. Terra rosa soils
Answer» C. Chernozem soils
Explanation: Chernozem or black earth variety of soil is rich in organic matter in the form of humus. It is generally a modified type of loess. True chernozem is black in color, but there are various grades, shading off into gray and chestnut-brown soils. It forms in areas that have cold winters, hot summers, and rapid evaporation of precipitation; generally only tall grass is found native on chernozem.

Which of the following oceans has the shape of the English alphabet S?

A. Arctic Ocean
B. Indian Ocean
C. Atlantic Ocean
D. Pacific Ocean
Answer» C. Atlantic Ocean
Explanation: Atlantic Ocean has the shape of an English alphabet S. Indian Ocean has 'M' Shape. The Arctic Ocean has 'U' shape, while the Pacific Ocean is triangular in shape.

Which from the following, is a landlocked sea?

A. Timor Sea
B. Arafura Sea
C. Greeland Sea
D. Aral Sea
Answer» D. Aral Sea
Explanation: Aral sea is a land locked sea. The Aral Sea has been steadily shrinking since the 1960s after the rivers that fed it were diverted by Soviet Union irrigation projects. It lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. Its area is of 68,000 square kilometers. The landlocked seas are Aral Sea, Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake, Salton Sea and Sea of Galilee. Landlocked seas may are also considered lakes as the definition of a lake is "a large body of freshwater surrounded by land".

The deepest ocean is –

A. Arctic
B. Pacific
C. Atlantic
D. Indian
Answer» B. Pacific
Explanation: The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10.911 km at the Challenger Deep.

Two seas or water-bodies connected by a narrow stretch of water is known as a –

A. Bay
B. Strait
C. Peninsula
D. Isthmus
Answer» B. Strait
Explanation: A strait is a narrow, typically navigable channel of water that connects two larger, navigable bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is otherwise not navigable, for example because it is too shallow, or because it contains an un-navigable reef or archipelago.

The rapidly growing mass of phytoplankton coveting the surface water of a lake or pond is known as –

A. Eutrophication
B. Water bloom
C. Water pollution
D. Water hyacinth
Answer» A. Eutrophication
Explanation: Eutrophication is the ecosystem response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates, through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system. One example is the 'bloom" or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients.

Which one of the following is a warm ocean current?

A. Kurile
B. Canary
C. Labrador
D. Gulf Stream
Answer» D. Gulf Stream
Explanation: The Gulf Stream is a warm current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and moves north toward Europe. Since it is full of warm water, the sea surface temperatures are warm, which keeps places like Europe warmer than other areas at similar latitudes.

What happens to atmospheric pressure with increase in altitude?

A. It remains constant
B. It decreases
C. It increases
D. It constantly fluctuates
Answer» B. It decreases
Explanation: In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the mass of air above the measurement point. Low-pressure areas have less atmospheric mass above their location, whereas high-pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their location. Likewise, as elevation increases, there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so that pressure decreases with increasing elevation.

Mediterranean type of climate is characterized by –

A. dry summer and wet winter
B. wet summer and dry winter
C. dry summer and dry winter
D. wet summer and wet winter
Answer» A. dry summer and wet winter
Explanation: The climate is characterized by warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. Mediterranean climate zones are associated with the five large subtropical high pressure cells of the oceans: the Azores High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, South Pacific High, and Indian Ocean High. These high pressure cells shift towards the poles in the summer and towards the equator in the winter, playing a major role in the formation of the world's tropical deserts and the Mediterranean Basin's climate.

The zone of Earth's atmosphere immediately above its surface up to a height of about 16 kms above equator and 8 kms over the poles is known as :

A. Mesosphere
B. Thermosphere
C. Troposphere
D. Stratosphere
Answer» C. Troposphere
Explanation: The zone of Earth's atmosphere immediately above its surface up to a height of about 16 kms above equator and 8 kms over the poles is known as troposphere.

The main advantage of Rain? Water Harvesting (RWH) is –

A. Recharge ground water
B. Avoid floods
C. Reduce the loss of water
D. Avoid soil erosion
Answer» A. Recharge ground water
Explanation: Rainwater harvesting is the simple collection or storing of water through scientific techniques from the areas where the rain falls. It is a technique of increasing the recharge of groundwater by capturing and storing rainwater by constructing structures such as dug wells, percolating pit, check dams.

Subtropical high pressure belts are otherwise called –

A. Furious fifties
B. Screeching sixties
C. Horse latitudes
D. Roaring forties
Answer» C. Horse latitudes
Explanation: The areas of sub-tropical high pressure are located between latitudes 250 and 350 N and S. These highpressure zones are called the horse-latitudes. It is an area which receives little precipitation and has variable winds mixed with calm

Shale is metamorphosed into which of the following rocks?

A. Graphite
B. Gneiss
C. Marble
D. Slate
Answer» D. Slate
Explanation: From depth of burial by continual sediment deposition from above, or from compressional stress from tectonic plate collisions, shale is metamorphosed into slate over periods of millions of years. During this compression, the clay minerals making up the shale decompose as they become unstable in the high pressure environment, and their chemical components are gradually transformed into minerals that are more stable in the newly forming higher pressure environment.

Earthquake is caused by –

A. disturbance of earth surface
B. adjustment of layers of earth's crust
C. breakage of rock system
D. upliftment of rocks
Answer» A. disturbance of earth surface
Explanation: Most earthquakes are minor tremors. Larger earthquakes usually begin with slight tremors but rapidly take the form of one or more violent shocks, and end in vibrations of gradually diminishing force called aftershocks. The subterranean point of origin of an earthquake is called its focus; the point on the surface directly above the focus is the epicenter.

A group of inter-connected Islands is known as -

A. Strait
B. Peninsula
C. Archipelago
D. Lagoon
Answer» C. Archipelago
Explanation: An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, New Zealand, the Maldives, the Bahamas, Greece, Hawaii, and the Azores are examples of well-known- archipelagos.

The layer of atmosphere close to the earth's surface is called –

A. Exosphere
B. Troposphere
C. Stratosphere
D. Ionosphere
Answer» B. Troposphere
Explanation: The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere and site of all weather on Earth. It is bonded on the top by a layer of air called the Tropopause, which separates the troposphere from the stratosphere and on bottom by the surface of the Earth.

The largest current, because of its dark waters is known as the 'black current' and that is :

A. Gulf Stream
B. Kuroshio Current
C. California Current
D. Antarctic Current
Answer» B. Kuroshio Current
Explanation: The word 'Kuroshio' means 'Black Current' in Japanese. Also known as Japan Current, it is a warm ocean current which flows up the East coast of Asia and under the influence of the westerly winds towards North America. It is the counterpart of the Gulf Stream. However, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the largest oceanic current on Earth.

Which one the following soils is used for the production of bricks?

A. Peaty and organic
B. Saline
C. Laterite
D. Red and yellow
Answer» D. Red and yellow
Explanation: Red Soil is also known as yellow soil. Red soils are formed as a result of the draining down of old crystalline rock, less clayey and sandier in nature. Red clay soil are used for the production of bricks.

Plantation of trees on a large scale to check soil erosion are called:

A. Shelter belts
B. Contour ploughing
C. Strip cropping
D. Afforestation
Answer» D. Afforestation
Explanation: Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. As plant roots hold the soil. Afforestation prevents soil erosion and enables better retention of water.

Which one of the following is the indirect use of forests?

A. Medicinal plants
B. Checking soil erosion
C. Building material
D. Grazing
Answer» B. Checking soil erosion
Explanation: Some of the indirect uses of forests include: prevention and control of soil erosion, flood control, checks on spread of deserts, increase of soil fertility, and effect onclimate. Forests play a significant role in the prevention and control of soil erosion by water and wind. The destruction of forest cover leads to increased runoff of rain water and its diminished seepage in soil.

"Tidal forest- is otherwise called :

A. Evergreen forest
B. Monsoon forest
C. Mangrove forest
D. Coniferous forest
Answer» C. Mangrove forest
Explanation: Tidal forest is also called Mangrove forest.

Vergreen type Forests are found in –

A. Mediterranean region
B. Monsoon climatic area
C. Desert region
D. Equatorial region
Answer» D. Equatorial region
Explanation: An evergreen forest is a forest consisting entirely or mainly of evergreen trees that retain green foliage all year round. Such forests reign in the equatorial region, between the tropics primarily as broadleaf evergreens, and in temperate and boreal latitudes primarily as coniferous evergreens.

The maximum biodiversity is found in–

A. Tropical rain forests
B. Temperate forests
C. Coniferous forests
D. Arctic forest
Answer» A. Tropical rain forests
Explanation: Most of the terrestrial diversity is found in tropical rainforests. As per an estimation, these forests account for around 40% to 75% of all biotic species and are home to half of all the living animal and plant species on the planet. A single hectare of rainforest may contain 42,000 different species of insect, up to 807 trees of 313 species and 1,500 species of higher plants.

In               forests, trees shed their leaves in a particular season.

A. evergreen
B. mangrove
C. deciduous
D. thorny
Answer» C. deciduous
Explanation: Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or “tending to fall off'. It is typically used in order to refer to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally most commonly during autumn and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe. Common examples of deciduous trees include oak, maple, and hickory trees.

All the ecosystems taken together in a geographical area form a bigger unit called:

A. biosphere
B. territory
C. biome
D. community
Answer» C. biome
Explanation: Biome is a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna adapted to the particular conditions in which they occur. For example, Tundra region.

Soil formed by leaching and oxidation is –

A. Black soil
B. Laterite soil
C. Red soil
D. Montane soil
Answer» B. Laterite soil
Explanation: Laterisation is a form of chemical weathering that • involves oxidation, carbonation and leaching. This natural process results in the formation of Laterite soils.

Soil which is prone to intensive leaching due to rain is called-

A. Laterite
B. Black
C. Alluvial
D. Red
Answer» A. Laterite
Explanation: Leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. Laterite soils are formed soils under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. They are leached and are, thus, less fertile.

The smallest ocean is :

A. Atlantic
B. Pacific
C. Indian
D. Arctic
Answer» D. Arctic
Explanation: The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five ocean basins. With an area of about 5.4 million square miles, the Arctic Ocean is about 1.5 times as big as the United States. It is bordered by Greenland, Canada, Norway, Alaska, and Russia. It is almost completely covered with ice for the majority of the year.

All vital atmospheric processes leading to various climatic and weather conditions take place in the :

A. Stratosphere
B. Troposphere
C. Ionosphere
D. Exosphere
Answer» B. Troposphere
Explanation: Troposphere, that extends up to a height of 12 km on an average from the surface of the earth, is the locale of all the vital atmospheric processes which create the climatic and weather conditions on the earth's surface. About half of the mass of air comprising the entire atmosphere is concentrated in this zone. This is the lowermost layer of the atmosphere.

The term "Doab" means –

A. a land between two mountains
B. a land between two lakes
C. a land between two rivers
D. a land between two seas
Answer» C. a land between two rivers
Explanation: Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for the "tongue," or tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. In the Oxford Hindi- English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as "a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers (esp. that between the Ganges and Jumna).

A spinning neutron star is known as –

A. White dwarf
B. Black hole
C. Pulsar
D. Quasar
Answer» C. Pulsar
Explanation: Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that have jets of particles moving almost at the speed of light streaming out above their magnetic poles. These jets produce very powerful beams of light.

When the moon completely covers the sun, it is known as –

A. the Antumbra
B. the Umbra
C. the Penumbra
D. None of these
Answer» B. the Umbra
Explanation: A solar eclipse occurs when the moon crosses the path between the sun and the earth. The darkest shadow (where the sun is completely covered) is called the umbra. The umbra is narrow at the distance of the Earth, and a total eclipse is observable only within the narrow strip of land or sea over which the umbra passes. The partial shadow is called the penumbra.

The planet revolving east to west is –

A. Venus
B. Uranus
C. Neptune
D. Pluto
Answer» A. Venus
Explanation: Like the other planets in our solar system, Venus rotates about its axis. However, Venus is the only planet that rotates from east to west instead of west to east. This means, that if we lived on Venus, the Sun would appear to rise in the west in the morning, and set in the east in the evening. Venus rotates in what is called retrograde motion.

The planet emitting green light is –

A. Jupiter
B. Venus
C. Uranus
D. Neptune
Answer» C. Uranus
Explanation: The atmosphere of Uranus is composed of 83% hydrogen, 15% helium, 2% methane and small amounts of acetylene and other hydrocarbons. Methane in the upper atmosphere absorbs red light, giving Uranus its blue-green colour.

The light from the Sun reaches the Earth in about—

A. 8 seconds
B. 8 minutes
C. 10 seconds
D. 10 minutes
Answer» B. 8 minutes
Explanation: Light travels at 186,000 miles a second at the Earth is 93 million miles to Sun on average. This works out as 8.33 minutes for light from the Sun to reach Earth. On average, it takes energy between 10,000 and 170,000 years to leave the sun's interior and then be emitted from the surface as light. Sunlight, in the broad sense, is the total frequency spectrum of electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, particularly infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through the Earth's atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon.

Trees are leafless for a shorter or longer season of the year in:

A. Evergreen forest
B. Mangrove forest
C. Scrub jungle forest
D. Deciduous forest
Answer» D. Deciduous forest
Explanation: Deciduous means “falling of at maturity" or "tending to fall off”, and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe. In a more general sense, deciduous means the dropping of a part that is nolonger needed, or falling away after its purpose is finished.

The area reserved for the welfare of wild life Is called –

A. Sanctuary
B. Forest
C. National Park
D. Botanical garden
Answer» C. National Park
Explanation: A National Park is an area which is strictly reserved for the welfare of wildlife and where activities such as forestry, grazing or cultivation are not allowed. Private ownership, rights and habitat, manipulation arc not permitted in a national park. There are 103 national parks in India covering an area of 40,500 km2, which is 1.23% of the geographical area of the country.

There is a need to keep larger area under forests for –

A. absorption of carbon dioxide
B. protecting wildlife
C. raising precipitation
D. geological balance
Answer» A. absorption of carbon dioxide
Explanation: Forests are considered as sinks of carbon dioxide. A carbon sink is anything that absorbs more carbon that it releases, whilst a carbon source is anything that releases more carbon than is absorb. It is for this reason that they are indispensable in the present global scenario marked by increasing global warming and climate change.

Which one of the following methods of soil conservation is most effective in arid areas?

A. Mulching
B. Shelter belt
C. Gully plugging
D. Terracing
Answer» B. Shelter belt
Explanation: In arid zones, the harsh conditions of climate and the shortage of water are intensified by the strong winds. Living conditions and agricultural production can often be improved by planting trees and shrubs in protective windbreaks and s-helterbelts which reduce wind velocity and provide shade. Windbreaks and shelterbelts, which are considered synonymous in this manual, are barriers of trees or shrubs that are planted to reduce wind velocities and, as a result, reduce evapo-transpiration and prevent wind erosion; they frequently provide direct benefits to agricultural crops, resulting in higher yields, and provide shelter to livestock, grazing lands, and farms.

Which one of the following does not cause soil erosion?

A. Deflation
B. Deforestation
C. Weathering
D. Overcropping
Answer» A. Deflation
Explanation: Deflation is a decline in general price-levels, often caused by a reduction in the supply of money or credit. Deflation can also be brought about by direct contractions in spending, either in the form of a reduction in government spending, personal spending or investment spending. Deflation has often had the side effect of increasing unemployment in an economy, since the process often leads to a lower level of demand in the economy.

The deepest surface depression on the earth is –

A. Kurile Trench
B. Mariana Trench
C. Tonga-Kermadec Trench
D. Bentley Subglacial
Answer» B. Mariana Trench
Explanation: The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about2,550 kilometres long but has an average width of only 69 kilometres. It reaches a maximum- known depth of 10.994 km at the Challenger Deep.

The coastal part of water bodies of the oceans which is structurally part of the mainland of the continents is called the-

A. Isthmus
B. Oceanic ridge
C. Continental shelf
D. Continental slope
Answer» C. Continental shelf
Explanation: The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. The shelf usually ends at a point of increasing slope (called the shelf break). The sea floor below the break is the continental slope. Below the slope is the continental rise, which finally merges into the deep ocean floor the abyssal plain.

Which one of the following is not a cold ocean current?

A. California
B. Oyashio
C. Kuroshio
D. Ganaries
Answer» C. Kuroshio
Explanation: The Kuroshio is a north-flowing warm ocean current on the west side of the North Pacific Ocean. It is similar to the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic, transporting warm, tropical water northward towards the polar region and is part of the North Pacific ocean gyre.

Atmospheric pressure exerted on earth is due to :

A. rotation of earth
B. revolution of earth
C. gravitational pull
D. uneven heating of earth
Answer» C. gravitational pull
Explanation: The atmosphere is made up of gasses. Gasses are physical substances, and allphysical substance has weight. The atmosphere is 25 miles thick, and that 25 miles thick layer of gasses presses down on earth with a weight of 15 lbs. per square inch because of the gravitational pull. That's how atmosphere exerts pressure on the earth.

Which one of the following has the highest wind velocity?

A. Typhoon
B. Hurricane
C. Cyclone
D. Tornado
Answer» D. Tornado
Explanation: A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as twisters or cyclones, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider sense, to name any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are about 250 feet (76 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating.

Hailstorms are caused due to –

A. condensation
B. convection
C. sublimation
D. freezing
Answer» D. freezing
Explanation: In a hailstorm, small ice particles that form above the freezing level (which occurs in all thunderstorms) collect either rain water or cloud water on them, forming a water shell that freezes. The tilted updraft and downdraft structure of the storm is important in order for hailstones to grow because they can be `recycled' several times, until they either become too largefor the updraft to carry them, or they get caught in a downdraft, and they finally reach the ground.

Blizzards are characteristic features of—

A. equatorial region
B. tropical region
C. Antarctic region
D. temperate region
Answer» C. Antarctic region
Explanation: Blizzards are characterized by low temperatures (usually below 20 degrees Fahrenheit) and accompanied by winds that are at least 35 mph or greater. Blizzards also have sufficient falling and/or blowing snow that reduces visibility to 1/4 mile or less at least three hours and is main feature of Antarctic region.

Density of the earth's atmosphere is highest in the –

A. Troposphere
B. Stratosphere
C. Mesosphere
D. Ionosphere
Answer» A. Troposphere
Explanation: Over 99% of the mass of the earth's atmosphere is contained in two layers: the troposphere and the stratosphere. Most of the earth's atmosphere (80 to 90%) is found in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer where we live. This layer, where the earth's weather occurs, is within about 12 km of the earth's surface.

Which of the following asborbs part of the insolation and preserves earth's radiated heat?

A. Oxygen
B. Nitrogen
C. Water vapour
D. Carbon-dioxide
Answer» C. Water vapour
Explanation: The amount of solar energy reaching the Earth is 70 percent. The surface of the Earth absorbs 51 percent of the insolation.Water vapor and dust account for 16 percent of the energy absorbed. Most of the terrestrial radiation is absorbed by the water vapor in the atmosphere and some by other gases (about 8 percent is radiated directly to outer space). This radiant energy is re-radiated in the atmosphere horizontally and vertically.

The humidity of air depends on –

A. Temperature
B. Location
C. Weather
D. All of the above
Answer» D. All of the above
Explanation: Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Humidity depends on water vaporization, and condensation, which, in turn, mainly depends on temperature. Temperature, in turn, is affected by weather and location.

The temperature increases rapidly above –

A. Ionosphere
B. Exosphere
C. Stratosphere
D. Troposphere
Answer» B. Exosphere
Explanation: Above Troposphere, temperature increases rapidly with height in the Stratosphere layer as it houses the ozone layer which absorbs ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. Again, temperature increases rapidly with height in Thermosphere which comprises Ionosphere (lower part) and Exosphere (upper part). Temperature in Exosphere which is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere reaches up to more than 4500° Celsius.

Marble is the metamorphosed form of

A. Shale
B. Basalt
C. Sandstone
D. Limestone
Answer» D. Limestone
Explanation: Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of re-crystallizedcarbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable re-crystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed.

The highest mountain peak of the Himalayas is situated in—

A. India
B. Tibet
C. Nepal
D. China
Answer» C. Nepal
Explanation: Overall, the Himalayan mountain system is the world's highest, and is home to the world's highest peaks, the Eight-thousanders. The Mount Everest is the highest peak having elevation of 8848 m and is situated in East of Kathmandu on Sagarmatha Zone Nepal. Mount Everest is the Earth's highest mountain, with a peak at 8,848 metres above sea level. It is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. The international border between China and Nepal runs across the precise summit point.

The term 'epicentre' is associated with

A. Earthquakes
B. Volcanoes
C. Cyclones
D. Landslides
Answer» A. Earthquakes
Explanation: Epicenter is the point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or underground explosion originates. Epicentral distance is used in calculating seismic magnitudes developed by Richter and Gutenberg.

Vocanoes are scattered –

A. all over the world
B. only along the coasts
C. on the islands
D. mainly along young fold mountains
Answer» C. on the islands
Explanation: Composite volcanoes are most commonly found in island arcs. Most of them are found scattered on the islands adjoining the Pacific Ring of Fire where about 75% of Earth's volcanoes are found. It is a region of high volcanic and seismic activity that surrounds the majority of the Pacific Ocean Basin.

Which of the following minerals are required for smelting iron ore?

A. Limestone and gypsum
B. Manganese and limestone
C. Limestone and coal
D. Gypsum and coal
Answer» B. Manganese and limestone
Explanation: Composite volcanoes are most commonly found in island arcs. Most of them are found scattered on the islands adjoining the Pacific Ring of Fire where about 75% of Earth's volcanoes are found. It is a region of high volcanic and seismic activity that surrounds the majority of the Pacific Ocean Basin.

Earthquakes are generally associated with :

A. Joints
B. Faults
C. Folds
D. Schistosity
Answer» B. Faults
Explanation: Earthquake is a sudden and violent movement, or fracture, within the earth followed by the series of shocks resulting from this fracture. Earthquake is more likely to be of Tectonic origin and probably because of existence of a Fault.

The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through –

A. Myanmar
B. Nepal
C. Bangladesh
D. China
Answer» B. Nepal
Explanation: The Tropic of Cancer passes through Algeria, Niger, Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, India, Bangaladesh, Myanmar, China, Mexico, Bahamas, Mauritinia, Mali etc.

The mountain formed on the earth crust due to tension is called –

A. Young folded mountain
B. Old folded mountain
C. Laccolith mountain
D. Block mountain
Answer» D. Block mountain
Explanation: The Block Mountains were formed on the crust due to tension. Faults are formed due to tensional forces. A part of the land block is depressed so that the remaining block stands conspicuously above the surroundings. Mountains formed in this way are called Block Mountains and the depressed portion is known as Rift Valley.

Spot the odd item of the following :

A. Shale
B. Marble
C. Limestone
D. Sandstone
Answer» B. Marble
Explanation: Shale, sandstone and limestone are classic examples of sedimentary rocks; Marble is a type of metamorphic rock. It is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

The earth completes one rotation on its axis in :

A. 23 hrs. 56 min. 4.9 sec
B. 23 hrs. 10 min. 2 sec
C. 23 hrs. 30 min.
D. 24 hrs.
Answer» A. 23 hrs. 56 min. 4.9 sec
Explanation: The Earth rotates around its axis once in about 24 hours with respect to the sun and once every 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds with respect to the stars. The Earth rotates from the west towards east. Seasons are caused by Earth's rotation around its axis.

Which one of the following planets has no moon?

A. Mars
B. Neptune
C. Mercury
D. Pluto
Answer» C. Mercury
Explanation: Mercury and Venus are the only two recognized planets in our solar system without moons. However, there are many, many planets in the universe and a significant portion of these, if our solar system is assumed representative of at least a significant portion of the universe's planetary systems likely have no moons.

Which one of the following is called a red planet?

A. Venus
B. Mercury
C. Mars
D. Jupiter
Answer» C. Mars
Explanation: Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

The number of zodiacs is –

A. 10
B. 12
C. 13
D. 11
Answer» B. 12
Explanation: In both astrology and historical astronomy, the zodiac is a circle of twelve 30° divisions of celestial longitude that are centered upon the ecliptic: the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. Historically, these twelve divisions are called signs.

Which of the following is known as the Morning Star?

A. Saturn
B. Jupiter
C. Mars
D. Venus
Answer» D. Venus
Explanation: One of the nicknames of Venus is "the Morning Star". It is also known as the Evening Star. Venus is called so because it appears brightest shortly before sunrise and shortly after sunset.

The darkest portion of the shadow cast during an eclipse is–

A. Corona
B. Umbra
C. Penumbra
D. Black hole
Answer» B. Umbra
Explanation: The umbra (Latin for "shadow") is the innermost and darkest part of a shadow, where the light source is completely blocked by the occluding body. An observer in the umbra experiences a total eclipse.

The total number of planets revolving around the sun is –

A. Five
B. Eight
C. Seven
D. Six
Answer» B. Eight
Explanation: There are 8 planets of the solar system that revolve around the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Pluto was stripped of its planetary status and categorized as a 'dwarf planet' by the International Astronomical Union in 2005.

Isolines joining places of equal rainfall are called –

A. Isohyets
B. Isotherms
C. Isobars
D. Contours
Answer» A. Isohyets
Explanation: Isohyet is a line drawn on a map connecting points that receive equal amounts of rainfall in a given period. A map with isohyets is called an isohyetal map.

Which of the following is not an Igneous Rock?

A. Dolomite
B. Granite
C. Basalt
D. Gabbro
Answer» A. Dolomite
Explanation: Dolomite is a common sedimentary rock-forming mineralcomposed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. It is the primary component of the sedimentary rock known as dolostone and the metamorphic rock known as dolomitic marble. Limestone that contains some dolomite is known as dolomitic limestone

Which is the warmest layer of the atmosphere?

A. Thermosphere
B. Troposphere
C. Stratosphere
D. Mesosphere
Answer» A. Thermosphere
Explanation: Troposphere, that extends up to a height of 12 km on an average from the surface of the earth, is the locale of all the vital atmospheric processes which create the climatic and weather conditions on the earth's surface. About half of the mass of air comprising the entire atmosphere is concentrated in this zone. This is the lowermost layer of the atmosphere.

Most of the ozone in the earth's atmosphere is found in the:

A. Troposphere
B. Stratosphere
C. Mesophere
D. Thermosphere
Answer» B. Stratosphere
Explanation: Most ozone (about 90%) resides in a layer that begins between 10 and 17 kilometers above the Earth's surface and extends up to about 50 kilometers. This region of the atmosphere is called the stratosphere. The ozone layer absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

How much of world's surface is covered by water?

A. 55%
B. 70%
C. 80%
D. 25%
Answer» B. 70%
Explanation: Water makes up 70.8% of the Earth's surface, while the other 29% consists of continents and Islands. To break the numbers down, 96.5% of all the Earth's water is contained within the oceans as salt water, while the remaining 3.5% is freshwater lakes and frozen water locked up in glaciers and the polar ice caps.

The largest reservoir of fresh water is :

A. Glaciers
B. Ground Water
C. Ponds
D. Lakes
Answer» A. Glaciers
Explanation: The largest water reservoir is the ocean, containing 97.3% of all water on Earth. Only 2.8 % of all the water on Planet Earth is fresh water. Three-quarters of all fresh water on Earth is frozen in glacier ice. So glacier ice is the second largest reservoir of water on Earth and the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth!

Soil factors are otherwise known as :

A. Edaphic factors
B. Biotic factors
C. Physiographic factors
D. Climatic factors
Answer» A. Edaphic factors
Explanation: Edaphic is a nature related to soil. Edaphic qualities may characterize the soil itself, including drain-age, texture, or chemical properties such as pH. Edaphic may also characterize organisms, such as plant communities, where it specifies their relation- ships with soil.

Highly specialized form of agriculture in which crops like coffee, tea and rubber are cultivated refer to –

A. multiple cropping
B. plantation agriculture
C. terrace farming
D. extensive farming
Answer» B. plantation agriculture
Explanation: Plantation agriculture is a form of commercial farming where crops are grown for profit. Usually, only one type of crop is grown in a plantation. Common examples include rubber, coffee, tea, bananas, sugar cane, oil palm, cocoa and tobacco.

Which of the following metals contribute to to biomagnifications problem in the ecosystem?

A. Mercury
B. Chromium
C. (4) Copper
D. (4) Lead
Answer» A. Mercury
Explanation: Mercury causes biomagnification problem in the ecosystem.

What is the percentage coverage of Tropical Forest on earth's landmass?

A. 7
B. 12
C. 17
D. 25
Answer» A. 7
Explanation: Although tropical forests cover less than 7% of the earth's surface they are home to approximately 50% of all living things on earth.

Which of the following phenomena is supposedly associated with global warming?

A. El Nino
B. La Nina
C. El Nino Modoki
D. Southern Oscillation
Answer» A. El Nino
Explanation: El Nino is an irregularly periodical variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. Scientists have found association with El Nino and global warming since El Nino events cause short-term spikes in global average surface temperature. For example, an increase in the frequency and magnitude of El Nino events have triggered warmer than usual temperatures over the Indian Ocean.

What is the alternate name for contour lines?

A. Isopotential
B. Istherm
C. Isohypse
D. Isohyet
Answer» C. Isohypse
Explanation: Isohypse is a line on a map that joins points of equal elevation. It is also known as contour line.

The fur of the animals living in colder regions –

A. protects them from water
B. traps the air and keeps them warm
C. protects them from enemies
D. makes them appear beautiful
Answer» B. traps the air and keeps them warm
Explanation: The fur of the animals living in colder regions traps the air and keeps them warm.

The largest ocean is –

A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Indian Ocean
C. Arctic Ocean
D. Pacific Ocean
Answer» D. Pacific Ocean
Explanation: The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east. This largest division of the World Ocean - and, in turn, the hydrosphere - covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined.

Which from the following can cause a tsunami?

A. Volcano
B. Avalanche
C. Tornado
D. Earthquake
Answer» D. Earthquake
Explanation: Most tsunamis are caused by earthquakes generated in a subduction zone, an area where an oceanic plate is being forced down into the mantle by plate tectonic forces. The friction between the subducting plate and the overriding plate is enormous.
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