510+ Physical Geography Solved MCQs


Which of the following phenomena is supposedly associated with global warming?

A. Southern Oscillations
B. El Nino
C. La Nino
D. El Nino Modiki
Answer» D. El Nino Modiki
Explanation: El Nino Modiki is associated with global warming.

Identify the most infertile amongst the following soils.

A. Black cotton soil
B. Alluvial soil
C. Laterite soil
D. Peaty soil
Answer» C. Laterite soil
Explanation: Lateritic soils are the most weathered and infertile of all soil types. Due to intensive leaching and low base-exchange capacity, typical lateritic soils are generally infertile and of little value for crop production (Geography of India by Srntta Sengupta, p 63).

Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

A. lchadar - Zonal soil
B. Podzol - Zonal soil
C. Chestnut - Zonal soil
D. Bhangar - Azonal soil
Answer» A. lchadar - Zonal soil
Explanation: Alluvial soils (chadar and bhangar) are azonal soils. They form in transported and recently deposited materials. Azonal soils have a profile determined pre- dominantly by factors other than local climate and vegetation.

A semi enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea is called

A. Estuary
B. Fiord
C. Cove
D. Ria coast
Answer» A. Estuary
Explanation: An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine and riverine influences.

The 'EL Nino' phenomena which sparks climatic extreme around the globe, originates in the –

A. Sea of China
B. Pacific Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Atlantic Ocean
Answer» B. Pacific Ocean
Explanation: El Nino (Little Boy, or Christ Child in Spanish) refers to the large-scale ocean- atmosphere climate interaction linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. It was originally recognized by fisher- men off the coast of South America in the 1600s, with the appearance of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean.

Which of the following is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere?

A. Stratosphere
B. Mesosphere
C. Ionosphere
D. Exosphere
Answer» D. Exosphere
Explanation: The exosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere. It extends from the exobase, which is located at the top of thethermosphere at an altitude of about 700 km above sea level, to about 10,000 km where it merges into the solar wind. This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules. The exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible.

In which of the following layer of atmosphere the absorption and scattering of the solar ultraviolet radiation takes place?

A. Troposphere
B. Stratosphere
C. Mesosphere
D. Thermosphere
Answer» B. Stratosphere
Explanation: Solar ultraviolet radiation undergoes absorption and scattering as it passes through the stratospheric layer of the earth's atmosphere. The ozone layer, a region of Earth's stratosphere, absorbs 97-99% of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As a result, no UV radiation at wavelengths shorter than 290 nm reaches the surface of the earth.

The sphere of living matter together with water, air and soil on the surface of the earth is known as –

A. Lithosphere
B. Biosphere
C. Hydrosphere
D. Atmosphere
Answer» B. Biosphere
Explanation: Part of the Earth's surface and atmosphere that contains the entire terrestrial ecosystem, and extends from ocean depths to about six kilometers above sea level. Not precisely demarkable, it contains all living organisms and what supports them soil, subsurface water, bodies of water, air and includes hydrosphere and lithosphere.

Which one of the following practices is adopted for restoring the fertility of soil?

A. Weeding
B. Levelling
C. (2) sweet jowar
D. (4) Harrowing
Answer» B. Levelling
Explanation: Fallowing, in agriculture, is the mode of preparing land, by ploughing it a considerable time before it is ploughed for seed. As a result of fallowing, parts of the soil become better incorporated, and thus reciprocally ameliorated; so that they may afford more uniform nourishment to the roots of plants

Which is a tropical food crop requiring a temperature of 270C and a rain fall more than 100 cm?

A. Wheat
B. Maize
C. Rice
D. Barley
Answer» C. Rice
Explanation: Rice is a major crop grown in most tropical and semi tropical regions. Rice being a tropical and subtropical plant, requires a fairly high temperature, ranging from 20° to 40°C. it requires an average temperature of about 24°C.

The narrow stretch of water connecting two Seas is called –

A. Bay
B. Peninsula
C. Isthamus
D. Strait
Answer» D. Strait
Explanation: A strait or straits is a narrow, typically navigable channel of water that connects two larger, navigable bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is otherwise not navigable, for example because it is too shallow, or because it contains an un-navigable reef or archipelago.

The coastal part of water bodies of the oceans which is structurally part of the mainland of the continents is called –

A. Isthumus
B. oceanic ridge
C. continental shelf
D. continental slope
Answer» C. continental shelf
Explanation: The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. The shelf usually ends at a point of increasing slope (called the shelf break). The sea floor below the break is the continental slope.

Ozone-hole in the atmosphere is largely caused by the presence of –

A. Oxygen
B. Hydrogen
C. Chlorofluorocarbons
D. Radio-active waste
Answer» C. Chlorofluorocarbons
Explanation: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODS) are mainly responsible for man-made chemical ozone depletion. It is calculated that a CFC molecule takes an average of about five to seven years to go from the ground level up to the upper atmosphere, and it can stay there for about a century, destroying up to one hundred thousand ozone molecules during that time.

The term Roaring Forties is related to the –

A. Trade winds
B. Planetary winds
C. Westerlies
D. Polar winds
Answer» C. Westerlies
Explanation: The Roaring Forties is the name given to strong westerly winds found in the Southern Hemisphere, generally between the latitudes of 40 and 50 degrees. The Westerlies play an important role in carrying the warm, equatorial waters and winds to the westerncoasts of continents, especially in the southern hemisphere because of its vast oceanic expanse.

Which one of the following is not the example of planetary winds?

A. Monsoon
B. Trade wind
C. Land and sea breezes
D. Chinook
Answer» D. Chinook
Explanation: "Chinook", originally meant a warming wind from the ocean into the interior regions of the Pacific Northwest (the Chinook people lived near the ocean, along the lower Columbia River). A strong Chinook can make snow one foot deep almost vanish in one day. The snow partly melts and partly evaporates in the dry wind. Chinook winds have been observed to raise winter temperature, often from below -20°C (-4°F) to as high as 10-20°C (50- 68°F) for a few hours or days, then temperatures plummet to their base level.

The climate of North America is influenced during winter by the –

A. Polar airmasses
B. Warm airmasses
C. Continental airmasses
D. Tropical airmasses
Answer» D. Tropical airmasses
Explanation: Maritime tropical (mT) air masses affecting North America most often originate over the warm water of the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, or the adjacent western Atlantic Ocean. As expected, mT air masses are warm to hot, and they are humid. During winter, when cP air dominates the central and eastern United States, mT air only occasionally enters this part of the country. However, during the summer, mT air masses from the Gulf, Caribbean, and adjacent Atlantic are more common and cover a much wider area of the continent.

Katrina is the name given to             .

A. Satellite
B. Star
C. Heat wave
D. Hurricane
Answer» D. Hurricane
Explanation: Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest and most destructive Atlantic hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. At least 1,833 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making it the deadliest U.S. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane.

In which region does rainfall occur throughout the year?

A. Mediterranean
B. Equatorial
C. Tropical
D. Temperate
Answer» B. Equatorial
Explanation: The equatorial climate is found between 5 degree north and 10 degree south of the equator. Precipitation in the equatorial region is heavy, between 60 inches and 106 inches and is well distributed throughout the year. Due to this abundant rainfall, tropical rainforest climate is usually found at latitudes within five degrees North and South of the equator.

Which among the following statements is true regarding International Date line?

A. It is 180° Longitude
B. It is a straight line
C. It is a big circle
D. It is a curved line beyond earth
Answer» A. It is 180° Longitude
Explanation: The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, that runs from the north to the South Pole and demarcates one calendar day from the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° longitude but it deviates to pass around some territories and island groups.

The sunlight is available 24 hours on the longest day at which of the following latitudes of the earth?

A. 49°
B. 66°
C. 63°
D. 69°51'
Answer» B. 66°
Explanation: During the June solstice the Earth's North Pole is tilted 23.5 degrees towards the Sun relative to the circle of illumination. This phenomenon keeps all places above latitude of 66.5 degrees N in 24 hours of sunlight, while locations below latitude of 66.5 degrees are in darkness.

Dolomite is a/an –

A. Sedimentary rock
B. Plutonic rock
C. Igneous rock
D. Metamorphic rock
Answer» A. Sedimentary rock
Explanation: Dolomite a sedimentary rock resembling limestone but consisting principally of the mineral dolomite. It is an important source of magnesium and its compounds, and is used as a building material and refractory. Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate, a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production of magnesium. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock, and serves as the host rock for large strata bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits of base metals such as lead, zinc, and copper.

Which one of the following rivers forms an estuary?

A. Ganga
B. Tapti
C. Godavari
D. Mahanadi
Answer» B. Tapti
Explanation: Tapti river empties into the Gulf of Cambay of the Arabian Sea, forming an estuary. It is fed by monsoon rains. The meanflow rate is about 600 cu m per sec, with the maximum in the summer. The Tapti is navigable by small craft for a distance of 50 km from the mouth. In some places it is used for irrigation. The seaport of Surat is located in the estuary. 45. (3) Deserts take up about one third (33%) of the Earth's land surface. Hot deserts usually have a large diurnal and seasonal temperature range, with high daytime temperatures, and low nighttime temperatures (due to extremely low humidity).

How much of the Earth's land surface is desert?

A. 1/10th
B. 1/5th
C. 1/3rd
D. (3) 1/6th
Answer» C. 1/3rd
Explanation: 0

Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

A. Sandstone
B. Shale
C. Quartzite
D. Granite
Answer» D. Granite
Explanation: Igneous rock is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic rock. In terms of modes of occurrence, igneous rocks can be either intrusive (plutonic), extrusive (volcanic) or hypabyssal. Granite is an intrusive igneous rock which is formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of a planet. They form central cores of major mountain ranges.

Ie glacier's melting is a common phenomenon linked to the rise in seawater level. The glaciers are predominantly present in–

A. Greenland
B. Antarctica
C. Himalayas
D. Arctic
Answer» B. Antarctica
Explanation: One of today's prevalent water issues is the rise in sea level. It is mainly causedby two phenomena: global warming and ozone depletion. Polar ice caps in Antarctica and other places are melting fast. This has led to increase in sea level over the years.

The angle between the magnetic meridian and the geographical meridian at a place is

A. Azimuth
B. Dip
C. Declination
D. Latitude
Answer» C. Declination
Explanation: Magnetic declination is the angle between compass north (the direction the north end of a compass needle points) and true north (the direction along the earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole.

Widening of a river valley takes place due to –

A. Corrosion
B. Lateral erosion
C. Corrasion
D. Hydraulic action
Answer» B. Lateral erosion
Explanation: Lateral or sideways erosion widens the river valley; while, Vertical or downward erosion deepens the river valley. Due to continued lateral erosion, the river valley increasingly becomes broader and shallower. The valley slopes are also eroded by weathering and mass wasting and by the development of tributary valleys.

Which type of lake is formed by volcanic activities?

A. Lagoon
B. Fresh water lake
C. Cladera lake
D. Karst lake
Answer» C. Cladera lake
Explanation: Lakes which form inside calderas (a cauldron-like volcanic feature usually formed by the collapse of land following a volcanic eruption) are called caldera lakes. These lakesform as the created depression is filled by water. For example, Lake Pinatubo, Philippines, formed after the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo filled the depression with water from monsoon rains.

Meanders are the features formed by –

A. glaciers
B. rivers
C. winds
D. ocean waters
Answer» B. rivers
Explanation: Reh refers to a mixture of soluble sodium salts appearing as efflorescence on the ground in arid or semiarid regions in India. It covers the land in the form of a white layer. It is also known as Kallar.

Which is the hottest planet in the Solar System?

A. Jupiter
B. Saturn
C. Venus
D. Uranus
Answer» C. Venus
Explanation: Mercury is closer to the sun, but the atmosphere on Venus actually makes it hotter. Even on the night side, the temperature doesn't drop by much (comparatively) because of the carbon dioxide, about 95%, atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure of Venus is also about 90 times greater than that of Earth.

The planets on either side of the Earth are –

A. Mars and Jupiter
B. Mercury and Venus
C. Venus and Saturn
D. Mars and Venus
Answer» D. Mars and Venus
Explanation: Earth is the third planet from the 'Sun in the following order from the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal.

Which planet looks reddish in the night sky?

A. Jupiter
B. Saturn
C. Mars
D. Mercury
Answer» C. Mars
Explanation: Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the seventh largest. The planet probably got this name due to its red color; Mars is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance.

Name the first Asian country to Orbit Mars.

A. Japan
B. Pakistan
C. China
D. India
Answer» D. India
Explanation: India is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt. Its Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan, was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It has been orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.

Which of the following Scientist proved that the path of each planet around the Sun is elliptical?

A. Kepler
B. Galileo
C. Newton
D. Copernicus
Answer» A. Kepler
Explanation: India is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt. Its Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan, was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It has been orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.

A drainage pattern where a river is joined by its tributaries approximately at right angles is

A. Dendritic
B. Trellis
C. Rectangular
D. Radial
Answer» B. Trellis
Explanation: When a river is joined by its tributaries at almost right angles, it develops a trellis pattern. Trellis pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.

The core of the earth is also known as –

A. Lithosphere
B. Mesosphere
C. Barysphere
D. Centrosphere
Answer» C. Barysphere
Explanation: The interior of the Earth beneath the lithosphere, including both the mantle and the core, is known as barysphere. However, it is sometimes used to refer only to the core or only to the mantle.

A level of atmosphere which is composed partly of electrons and positive ions is called –

A. Troposphere
B. Ionosphere
C. Stratosphere
D. Mesosphere
Answer» B. Ionosphere
Explanation: Ionosphere is composed partly of electrons and positive ions. It is a region of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about 60 km to 1,000 km altitude, that is ionized by solar radiation. This layer is also called thermosphere as its temperature rises with height.

The amount of insolation received at a place on the surface of the earth depends upon:

A. its climate
B. the longitude of the place
C. its latitude
D. the altitude of the place
Answer» C. its latitude
Explanation: Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time. It mainly depends on two factors: (1) the angle at which the Sun's rays strike- the Earth, and (2) the length of time of exposure to the rays. Both of these factors are controlled by the latitude of the location and time of the year (Physical Geography Strahler & Sirahler).

Terrigenous deposits are found in –

A. Deep Sea Plain
B. Ocean Trenches
C. Rift Valley
D. Continental Shelf and Slope
Answer» D. Continental Shelf and Slope
Explanation: In oceanography, terrigenous sediments are those derived from the erosion of rocks on land; that is, they are derived from terrestrial (as opposed to marine) environments. Consisting of sand, mud, and silt carried to sea by rivers, they are mainly deposited on the continental shelfand slopes. Terrigenous sediments that reach the continental shelf are often stored in submarine canyons on the continental slope. Turbidity currents carry them down into the deep sea.

'El Nino' that affects our Monsoons, has its origins in –

A. The Indian Ocean
B. The Himalayan Plateau
C. The Pacific Ocean
D. The Arabian Peninsula
Answer» C. The Pacific Ocean
Explanation: El Nino is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean that causes global changes of both temperatures and rainfall. It is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, as opposed to La Nina, whichis characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.

In a desert region, soil erosion can be checked by –

A. Contour ploughing
B. Using farm manure
C. Tree plantation/Afforestaion
D. Crop rotation
Answer» C. Tree plantation/Afforestaion
Explanation: Afforestation holds the key for preventing soil erosion in desert regions and further desertification. Trees or even small plants bind soil to their roots, thereby checking their loosening. Some other measures include: introduction of improved dry farming practices and animal husbandry and plantations for fuel and fodder.

'Terra rossa' is a Latin word which means –

A. hot area
B. red terrain
C. lateritic region
D. region near the poles
Answer» B. red terrain
Explanation: 'Terra Rossa' in Latin or Italian language is another name for "Red Soil" or "Red Terrain". It is a type of red clay soil produced by the weathering of limestone. Terra Rossa is typically found in regions with a Mediterranean climate.

Which of the following is a renewable resource?

A. Coal
B. Mineral oil
C. Natural gas
D. Forests
Answer» D. Forests
Explanation: Forest is a renewable resource.

Taiga means :

A. Decidious forests
B. Coniferous forests
C. Grass lands
D. Deserts
Answer» B. Coniferous forests
Explanation: Taiga is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches. It is the world's largest terrestrial biome.

Contours are imaginary lines showing

A. places of equal atmospheric pressure
B. same temperature areas
C. places of equal altitudes
D. equal sunshine areas
Answer» C. places of equal altitudes
Explanation: In cartography, a contour line (often just called a "contour") joins points of equal elevation (height) above a given level, such as mean sea level. Contour lines are curved or straight lines on a map describing the intersection of a real or hypothetical surface with one or more horizontal planes. The configuration of these contours allows map readers to infer relative gradient of a parameter and estimate that parameter at specific places.

The imaginary lines joining places of same height at equal intervals are –

A. Hachures
B. Contours
C. Spot-heights
D. Isomers
Answer» B. Contours
Explanation: In cartography, a contour line (often just called a "contour") joins points of equal elevation (height) above a given level, such as mean sea level.

Imaginary lines joining places with same temperature are called –

A. Isobars
B. Isohyets
C. Isohalines
D. Isotherms
Answer» D. Isotherms
Explanation: An isotherm is a line on a map or chart of the earth's surface connecting points having the same temperature at a given time or the same mean temperature for a given period. Isotherm maps show where temperatures are relatively high and low, and also where temperature changes are gradual or dramatic over a distance.

What is meant by the term "mid-night sun"?

A. Twilight
B. Rising Sun
C. Very bright moon
D. Sun shining in the polar circle for long time
Answer» D. Sun shining in the polar circle for long time
Explanation: The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon occurring in summer months at places north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle where the sun remains visible at the local midnight. Around the solstice (June 21 in the north and December 21 in the south) and given fair weather the sun is visible for the full 24 hours. The number of days per year with potential midnight sun increases the farther towards either pole one goes.

What is the mean temperature of Earth?

A. 6 degree Celsius
B. 16 degree Celsius
C. 26 degree Celsius
D. 36 degree Celsius
Answer» B. 16 degree Celsius
Explanation: The average temperature on Earth is about 61° F (16° C). But temperatures vary greatly around the world depending on the time of year, ocean and wind currents and weather conditions. Summers tend to be warmer and winters colder. Also, temperatures tend to be higher near the equator and lower near the poles.

The outermost layer of sun is called –

A. Lithosphere
B. Chromosphere
C. Photosphere
D. Corona
Answer» D. Corona
Explanation: The corona is the outermost layer of the Sun, starting at about 1300 miles (2100 km) above the solar surface (the photosphere). The temperature in the corona is 500,000 K (900,000 degrees F, 500,000 degrees C) or more, up to a few million K. The corona cannot be seen with the naked eye except during a total solar eclipse. The corona does not have an upper limit.

On which date is India likely to experience the shortest day?

A. December 22
B. March 21
C. June 22
D. September 23
Answer» A. December 22
Explanation: 21-23 December, also known as winter solstice, is the shortest day of the year in the northern hemisphere. India, being in the northern hemisphere, experiences its shortest day and longest night on this very day. The winter solstice occurs at the moment when the North Pole is tilted furthest away from the sun.

The planet that takes 88 days to make one revolution of the sun is -

A. Mercury
B. Saturn
C. Jupiter
D. Mars
Answer» A. Mercury
Explanation: In the solar system, the orbit of Mercury is the most eccentric (that is, the least perfectly circular) of the eight planets. It orbits the Sun once in about 88 Earth days, completing three rotations about its axis for every two orbits.

'Super nova' is –

A. a comet
B. an asteroid
C. an exploding Star
D. a black hole
Answer» C. an exploding Star
Explanation: A supernova is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. During this short interval a supernova can radiate as much energy as the Sun is expected to emit over its entire life span. The explosion expels much or all of a star's material at a velocity of up to 30,000 km/s (10% of the speed of light).

Which is the coldest among the following?

A. Mars
B. Earth
C. Pluto
D. Mercury
Answer» C. Pluto
Explanation: Until it lost its planetary status in 2006, Pluto was the coldest with an estimated surface temperature between -235 and -210 degrees Celsius. But Pluto has now been relegated the status of a Dwarf Planet. Pluto has always had the 'honour' of being the coldest planet with an average temperature between 360 to -400 degrees Fahrenheit. This is because it is so far away from the sun: it is over 40 times further from the sun than planet Earth. Pluto also has no internal heat source and it even orbits in a ring of ice debris.

The minimum short-term natural hazard is –

A. blizzard
B. earthquake
C. volcanic eruption
D. bolt of lightning
Answer» D. bolt of lightning
Explanation: Due to gravity, our Earth has an atmosphere. Gravity causes the gases to be held close to the earth instead of escaping into outer space. Besides, gravity makes the atmosphere denser closer to the Earth the upper layers push down against the lower layers

Molten rock below the surface of the earth is called –

A. Basalt
B. Laccolith
C. Lava
D. Magma
Answer» D. Magma
Explanation: Magma is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth. When magma erupts from a volcano or other vent, the molten rock is referred to as lava. When lava cools on the Earth's surface and forms a solid structure, it is called igneous rock.

An earthquake is also, known as –

A. Teacher
B. Tremor
C. Temper
D. None of these
Answer» B. Tremor
Explanation: An earthquake is also known as a quake, tremor or temblor. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. It is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.

Which one of the following rivers crosses the tropic of Capricorn twice?

A. Vaal
B. Limpopo
C. Nizer
D. Zambezi
Answer» B. Limpopo
Explanation: An earthquake is also known as a quake, tremor or temblor. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. It is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.

Breaking down of rock in situ is known as –

A. Erosion
B. Weathering
C. Mass wasting
D. Degradation
Answer» B. Weathering
Explanation: Weathering is the breaking clown of rocks, soils and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, biota and waters. Weathering occurs in situ, or "with no movement

Which of the following is an example of Plutonic Igneous Rock?

A. Basalt
B. Granite
C. Slate
D. Dolomite
Answer» B. Granite
Explanation: When magma solidifies under the earth's surface, it forms plutonic rock bodies or plutons. The most common rock types in plutons are granite, granodiorite, tonalite, monzonite, and quartz diorite.

Which one of the following is the greatest circle?

A. Tropic of Cancer
B. Tropic of Capricorn
C. Equator
D. Arctic Circle
Answer» C. Equator
Explanation: An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and containing the sphere's center of mass. This imaginary line on the Earth's surface is equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into theNorthern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. It is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth, with the others being the two Polar Circles and the two Tropical Circles: the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

In the context of 'time', GMT means –

A. General Meridian Time
B. Greenwich Mean Time
C. Global Mean Time
D. None of these
Answer» B. Greenwich Mean Time
Explanation: Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a time system originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, which later became adopted as a global time standard. It is the term in common use in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, South Africa, India, Pakistan and Malaysia, as well as many other countries in the Old World.

When does the moon come between the Sun and earth?

A. Lunar eclipse
B. Solar eclipse
C. Sidereal day
D. Full moon day
Answer» B. Solar eclipse
Explanation: As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun. This can happen only at new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is fully obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses only part of the Sun is obscured.

Which one of the following is the example of sedimentary rocks?

A. Loess
B. Basalt
C. Granite
D. Gabbro
Answer» A. Loess
Explanation: Loess is an Aeolian sediment formed by the accumulation of wind-blown silt, typically in the 20-50 micrometer size range, twenty percent or less clay and the balance equal parts sand and silt that are loosely cemented by calcium carbonate. It is usually homogeneous and highly porous and is traversed by vertical capillaries that permit the sediment to fracture and form vertical bluffs. The word loess, with connotations of origin by wind-deposited accumulation, is of German origin and means "loose." It was first applied to Rhine River valley loess about 1821.

The west to east extension of the Himalayas is from –

A. Indus gorge to Dihang gorge
B. K2 to Chomoihari
C. NangaParbat to Namcha Barwa
D. Rakaposhi to Lohit river
Answer» A. Indus gorge to Dihang gorge
Explanation: The Himalayas, geologically young and structurally fold mountains stretch over the northern borders of India. These mountain ranges run in a west-east direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. The Brahmaputra marks the eastern most boundary of the Himalayas. Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of India.

What is the position of the Earth when it is at the greatest distance from the sun?

A. Aphelion
B. Antipode
C. Perihelion
D. Aldiate
Answer» A. Aphelion
Explanation: The Earth is farthest away from the Sun, at the aphelion point, two weeks after the June Solstice, when the Northern Hemisphere is enjoying warm summer months. Conversely, it is closest to the Sun, or at the perihelion, about two weeks after the DecemberSolstice, when it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere.

Most of the devastating earth-quakes are usually caused by –

A. Eustatic movement
B. Isostatic adjustment
C. Collision of earth plates
D. Volcanic eruption
Answer» C. Collision of earth plates
Explanation: An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of enemy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The world's earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the Earth's surface. They tend to be concentrated in narrow zones. An explanation is to be found in plate tectonics, a concept which has revolutionized thinking in the Earth's sciences. Plate tectonics tells us that the Earth's rigid outer shell (lithosphere) is broken into a mosaic of oceanic and continental plates which can slide over the plastic asthenosphere, which is the uppermost layer of the mantle.

Which one of the four regions above the earth has smallest height (km.)?

A. Stratosphere
B. Mesosphere
C. Thermosphere
D. Troposphere
Answer» D. Troposphere
Explanation: The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. The average depth of the troposphere is approximately 17 km (11 mi) in the middle latitudes. It is deeper in the tropics, up to 20 km and shallower near the Polar Regions, at 7 km in summer and indistinct in winter. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and aerosols.

Typhoons are common in the –

A. Arctic Ocean
B. Seas of China and Japan
C. Mexican Gulf
D. Indian Ocean
Answer» B. Seas of China and Japan
Explanation: Typhoons are common in the China Sea and along the margins of the west Pacific Ocean.

Which is the lowest layer of the atmosphere?

A. Troposphere
B. Stratosphere
C. Mesosphere
D. Thermosphere
Answer» A. Troposphere
Explanation: The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere. The air is very well mixed and the temperature decreases with altitude.

Which one of the following represent the lines joining the places of equal rainfall?

A. Isohypses
B. Isohalines
C. Isobars
D. Isohyets
Answer» D. Isohyets
Explanation: An isohyet or isohyetal line (from huetos, meaning 'rain') is a line joining points of equal precipitation on a map. A map with isohyets is called an isohyetal map.

Daily weather changes in the atmosphere are associated with –

A. Troposphere
B. Mesosphere
C. Ionosphere
D. Stratosphere
Answer» A. Troposphere
Explanation: The lowest layer of the atmosphere, 6 miles (10 km) high in some areas and as much as 12 miles (20 km) high in others, within which there is a steady drop in temperature with increasing altitude and within which nearly all cloud formations occur and weather conditions manifest themselves.

Tropical storm in Chinese Sea is known as –

A. Wave
B. Tornado
C. Typhoon
D. Cyclone
Answer» C. Typhoon
Explanation: Tropical Cyclone (also known as Typhoons (in the western Pacific), Hurricanes (Atlantic), or Tropical Revolving Storms) occur all year round over the northern South China Sea. However, the "Typhoon Season" is taken to be from the Autumn transition (Oct) to the first half of the Northeast monsoon (Nov-Dec), when they occur most frequently in the South China Sea.

Black soil is mainly related with the crop of –

A. cotton
B. sugarcane
C. tea
D. coffee
Answer» A. cotton
Explanation: Black soils, locally called regard or black cotton soils, and internationally known as 'tropical black earths' or 'tropical chernozems' have been developed by the weathering of the Deccan lava in India. They are highly retentive of moisture, extremely compact and tenacious when wet, considerably contracted developing deep wide cracks on drying and self-ploughing and are credited with high fertility of crops like cotton.

Virtually treeless, sparse vegetation is found in :

A. Taiga
B. Alpine
C. Tundra
D. Chapparal
Answer» C. Tundra
Explanation: Polar climates feature long and dark winter periods with extremely cold temperatures. Rainfall is low, and the deeper soillayers stay frozen all year round. These harsh conditions combined result in treeless, sparse vegetation, which includes shrubs, lichens and mosses, during summer months. This typical vegetation linked to polar climates is called tundra

Name the condition which influences the development of plants into distinctive forms.

A. Climatic conditions
B. Soil conditions
C. Environmental conditions
D. Social conditions
Answer» A. Climatic conditions
Explanation: The development of plants into diverse and distinctive forms is mainly due to climatic fact ors such as temperature, precipitation, etc, which arc in turn responsible for the variations in soil types. As seen in Koeppen's classification, we can identify different climates by the types of plants that grow there.

The soils which are rich in Calcium are known as –

A. Pedocals
B. Pedalfers
C. Podsols
D. Laterites
Answer» A. Pedocals
Explanation: 'Terra Rossa' in Latin or Italian language is another name for "Red Soil" or "Red Terrain". It is a type of red clay soil produced by the weathering of limestone. Terra Rossa is typically found in regions with a Mediterranean climate.

Soil erosion can be prevented by –

A. Increasing bird population
B. Afforestation
C. Removal of vegetation
D. Overgrazing
Answer» B. Afforestation
Explanation: Soil erosion takes place when the soil is blown away by the wind or washed awayby the rain. Afforestation or planting trees can check soil erosion as roots of trees/plants hold the soil. Thus, when more trees are planted their roots don't allow the soil to be blown or washed away and prevent soil erosion.

Where is the Great Barrier Reef located?

A. Pacific Ocean
B. Indian Ocean
C. Atlantic Ocean
D. Arctic Ocean
Answer» A. Pacific Ocean
Explanation: The Great Barrier Reef is located off the north-eastern coast of Queensland, Australia in the Coral Sea in the western edge of the Pacific Ocean. It is the world's largest coral reef system, composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2.300 kilometres over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres.

A wide inlet of the sea usually concave in shape, is termed as a:

A. Strait
B. Sound
C. Bay
D. Fjord
Answer» C. Bay
Explanation: Bay is inlet of the sea or other body of water usually smaller than a gulf. It refers to the concavity of a coastline or reentrant of the sea, formed by the movements of either the sea or a lake. A bay is usually located where more easily eroded rocks are bounded by harder and more resistant formations made from igneous rocks.

Which of the following wind is blowing from the Mediterranean sea to the North Western parts of India?

A. Western disturbances
B. Norwesters
C. Loo
D. Mango showers
Answer» A. Western disturbances
Explanation: Western Disturbance is an extratropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Jet streams play an important role in bringing these disturbances to India. Western disturbances are generally active from December to February.

Which layer of the earth's atmosphere contains the ozone layer?

A. Troposphere
B. Mesosphere
C. Ionosphere
D. Stratosphere
Answer» D. Stratosphere
Explanation: The ozone layer is a region of Earth's stratosphere. It is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth. The ozone layer absorbs 97 to 99 percent of the Sun's medium-frequency ultraviolet light (200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which other-wise would be harmful to exposed life forms on the earth.

The rock that results from solidification of molten lava from a volcano is an example of which of the following?

A. Igneous Rock
B. Granite Rock
C. Basalt Rock
D. Magnetite
Answer» A. Igneous Rock
Explanation: Igneous rocks are formed through the cooling and solidification of magma (or lava). As hot, molten rock rises to the surface, it undergoes changes in temperature and pressure that cause it to cool, solidify, and crystallize. There are over 700 known types of igneous rock, the majority of which are formed beneath the surface of the Earth's crust. However, some are also formed on the surface as a result of volcanic activity.

Precipitation in the form of a mixture of rain and snow is called –

A. Drizzle
B. Hail
C. Sleet
D. Snow
Answer» C. Sleet
Explanation: Sleet is precipitation composed of rain and partially melted snow. It forms when rain, while falling to the earth, passes through a layer of cold air and freezes. Sleet occurs when the temperature in the lowest part of the atmosphere is slightly above the freezing point of water (0 °C).

The significant quantity of upper soil is formed by –

A. Igneous rock
B. Sedimentary rock
C. Metamorphic rock
D. Biological degradation
Answer» B. Sedimentary rock
Explanation: The significant quantity of upper soil is formed by Sedimentary rock.

In a desert region, soil erosion can be checked by –

A. Tree plantation/afforestation
B. Crop rotation
C. Contour ploughing
D. Using farm manure
Answer» A. Tree plantation/afforestation
Explanation: Soil erosion in a desert region can be checked by tree plantation and afforestation.

Laterite soil develops as a result of :

A. deposits of alluvial
B. deposits of loess
C. leaching
D. continued vegetation cover
Answer» C. leaching
Explanation: Laterite has been derived from the Latin word 'later' which means brick. The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intenseleaching due to heavy rain. Humus content of the soil is low because most of the micro organisms, particularly the decomposers, like bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature.

The soil water which is of the greatest importance to the plant life is–

A. Gravitational water
B. Capillary water
C. Hygroscopic water
D. Combined water
Answer» B. Capillary water
Explanation: Capillarity is the primary force that enables the soil to retain water, as well as to regulate its movement. The phenomenon of capillarity also occurs in the soil. In the same way that water moves upwards through a tube against the force of gravity; water moves upwards through soil pores, or the spaces between soil particles. Gravitational water occupies the larger soil pores (macro pores) and moves down readily under the force of gravity. Water in excess of the field capacity is termed gravitational water. Gravitational water is of no use to plants because it occupies the larger pores. It reduces aeration in the soil.

Which oneofgreenhouse gas? (1) Oxygen(2) Nitrogen(3) Carbon-dioxide(4) OzoneQ.45) Biggest planet of solar system is –

A. Earth
B. Mars
C. Saturn
D. Jupiter
Answer» D. Jupiter
Explanation: Jupiter is the biggest planet in our Solar System. It is the largest by mass, volume, and surface area among other statistics. Here are the critical measurements of Jupiter as well as a few other interesting facts about the planet and other bodies in the Jovian system.

Which is the second nearest star to the Earth after the Sun?

A. Vega
B. Sirius
C. Proxima Centauri
D. Alpha Centauri
Answer» C. Proxima Centauri
Explanation: As the nearest star from our Solar System, Proxima Centauri is a prime candidate for future interstellar travel and space colonization missions. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star about 4.24 light-years distant inside the G-cloud in the constellation of Centaurus. It was discovered in 1915 by Robert Innes, the Director of the Union Observatory in South Africa, and is the nearest known star to the Sun, although it is too faint to be seen with the naked eye.

On which of the following planets water cycle is available?

A. Jupiter
B. Earth
C. Mars
D. Venus
Answer» B. Earth
Explanation: The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time, individual water molecules can comeand go, in and out of the atmosphere. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and subsurface flow. In so doing, the water goes through different phases: liquid, solid (ice), and gas (vapor).

The asteroids revolve round the Sun in between :

A. Earth and Mars
B. Mars and Jupiter
C. Jupiter and Saturn
D. Saturn and Uranus
Answer» B. Mars and Jupiter
Explanation: Asteroids, sometimes called minor planets, are small, rocky fragments left over from the formation of our solar system about 4.6 billion years ago. Most of this ancient space rubble can be found orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids range in size from Ceres, about 952 km (592 miles) in diameter, to bodies that are less than 1 km across. The total mass of all the asteroids is less than that of Earth's Moon.

The Equator does not pass through which of the following countries?

A. Kenya
B. Mexico
C. Indonesia
D. Brazil
Answer» B. Mexico
Explanation: The equator passes through 13 countries: Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia and Kiribati.

The majority of Earth's crust is composed of which rock?

A. Igneous
B. Metamorphic
C. Sedimentary
D. Carbonate
Answer» A. Igneous
Explanation: The Earth is composed predominantly of a large mass of igneous rock with a very thin veneer of weathered material— namely, sedimentary rock.

The surface temperature of the sun is estimated as –

A. 6000 °C
B. 12000 °C
C. 18000 °C
D. 24000 °C
Answer» A. 6000 °C
Explanation: The surface of the sun is called the photosphere. The photosphere is 340 miles thick and it's temperature s range from 5,500°C to 6,000°C. It has dark spots called sunspots which are the only solar activity observable by the naked eye.

Sink hole is a phenomenon of                 topography.

A. Plain
B. Desert
C. Tundra
D. Karst
Answer» D. Karst
Explanation: The course of a river from its source to its mouth is normally divided into 3 sections, namely upper, middle and lower courses. Action of the river on its valley from source to mouth in relation to the features developed by it is seen in the river valley profile, known as graded profile. Throughout the long profile of a river, deposition and erosion are balanced meaning that, given enough time, the river's long profile would become a smooth,concave, graded profile from its source to mouth.

Earthquakes are caused by –

A. Denudation
B. Tectonism
C. Earth revolution
D. Earth rotation
Answer» B. Tectonism
Explanation: Earthquakes result from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Most occur along plate boundaries. Tectonic earth-quakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane.

The formation of 'Mushroom rock' in desert region is an example of –

A. Deflation
B. Attrition
C. Abrasion
D. Erosion
Answer» C. Abrasion
Explanation: The rocks having broad upper part and narrow base resembling an umbrella or mushroom are called mushroom rocks or pedestal rocks. These undercut, mushroom- shaped rocks are formed due to abrasive works of wind.

Which one of the following is a Sedimentary Rock?

A. Granite
B. Charnockite
C. Basalt
D. Arkose
Answer» D. Arkose
Explanation: Arkose is a detrital sedimentary rock, specifically a type of sandstone containing at least 25% feldspar. It is commonly coarse- grained and usually either pink of gray (depending on the color of feldspar).

Which one of the following is an unpredictable natural disaster?

A. Earthquake
B. Cyclone
C. Tornado
D. Hurricane
Answer» A. Earthquake
Explanation: Despite rapid advances in earth sciences and technology, it is hard to predict the exact timing of an earthquake. The suddenness associated with earthquakes is the main reason behind severe damage to life and property. Due to the general unpredictability of earthquakes, it is best to stress the importance of planning ahead.
Question and answers in Physical Geography, Physical Geography multiple choice questions and answers, Physical Geography Important MCQs, Solved MCQs for Physical Geography, Physical Geography MCQs with answers PDF download