510+ Physical Geography Solved MCQs


Who coined the word 'Geography'?

A. Ptolemy
B. Eratosthenese
C. Hacataus
D. Herodatus
Answer» B. Eratosthenese
Explanation: Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, athlete, astronomer, and music theorist. He was the first person to use the word -geography in Greek and he invented the discipline of geography as we understand it.

The art and science of map making is called –

A. Remote Sensing
B. Cartography
C. Photogrammetry
D. Mapping
Answer» B. Cartography
Explanation: Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

The deepest trench of the Indian Ocean is –

A. Java trench
B. Aleutian trench
C. Atacama trench
D. Diamantina Trench
Answer» D. Diamantina Trench
Explanation: The Sunda Trench, earlier known as the Java Trench, is the deepest point in the Indian Ocean. It is located in the northeastern Indian Ocean, with a length of 3,200 kilometres. The trench is considered to be part of the Pacific Ring of Fire as well as one of a ring of oceanic trenches around the northern edges of the Australian Plate.

The layer where the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude is totally absent is –

A. Troposphere
B. Ionosphere
C. Stratosphere
D. Mesosphere
Answer» C. Stratosphere
Explanation: The stratosphere defines a layer in which temperatures rises with increasing altitude. At the top of the stratosphere the thin air may attain temperatures close to 0°C. This rise in temperature is caused by the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun by the ozone layer. Such a temperature profile creates very stable atmospheric conditions. Consequently, the stratosphere is almost completely free of clouds or other forms of weather.

An ecological system is a –

A. Biological system
B. Biogeochemical system
C. Physicochemical system
D. Bioecological system
Answer» A. Biological system
Explanation: An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components oftheir environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. They are biological system in the sense that they represent recurring groups of biological communities that are found in similar physical environments and are influenced by similar dynamic ecological processes, such as fire or flooding.

After which one of the following tribes of India, has a large continent of ancient geological history of the world been named?

A. Santhals
B. Bhils
C. Marias
D. Gonds
Answer» D. Gonds
Explanation: In paleo-geography, Gondwana, originally Gondwanaland, was the southern most of two supercontinents that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent. It existed from approximately 510 to 180 million years ago. It included most of the landmasses in today's Southern Hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar and the Australian continent, as well as the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent, which have now moved entirely into the Northern Hemisphere.

The colour of loamy soil is –

A. Greenish brown
B. Bluish green
C. Yellowish brown
D. Blackish brown
Answer» D. Blackish brown
Explanation: Loam encompasses a variety of soil types, some granulated and nicely draining, while others may be thicker and have the consistency of mud. Most loam soils are a brown or black colour, making them ideal for gardens. It is often the most preferred type for plant growth and does well with just about any species. Large plants and trees, including maples and poplars, are both commonly found growingin loam soil. Loam is a Combination of small rock particles, organic matter and nutrients, often in ideal combinations for healthy plant growth. The granular soil retains water very easily, yet the drainage is well. Loamy soil is composed of 40 % sand, 40% silt and 20% clay.

What is the interval between a high tide and neaptide at a given place?

A. 12 hours
B. 12 hours 26 minutes
C. 15 hours 30 minutes
D. 24 hours
Answer» B. 12 hours 26 minutes
Explanation: Tide clocks are popular clocks used amongst surfers, sailors, and anyone else who is concerned with the tidal cycle. They run on a 12 hour and 25 or 26 minute cycle, which is the time it takes for the high tide to ebb and flow back to high tide again.

Seismic sea waves which approach the coasts at greater force arc known as –

A. Tides
B. Tsunami
C. Current
D. Cyclone
Answer» B. Tsunami
Explanation: A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impadts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to as tidal waves.

Which of the following is a cold ocean current?

A. Humboldt current
B. Brazil current
C. Oyashio current
D. Canary current
Answer» A. Humboldt current
Explanation: The Humboldt Current , also known as the Peru Current, is a cold, low- salinity ocean current that flows north-westward along the west coast of South America from the southern tip of Chile to northern Peru. It is an eastern boundary current flowing in the direction of the equator, and can extend 1,000 kilometers offshore. The Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem (LME), named after the Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, is one of the major upwelling systems of the world, supporting an extraordinary abundance of marine life.

In sea, plants are restricted up to the depth of –

A. 20 m
B. 200 m
C. 1000 m
D. 2000 m
Answer» B. 200 m
Explanation: In sea, vegetations are found upto the depth of 200 m.

El Nino occurs over –

A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Indian Ocean
C. Pacific Ocean
D. Mediterranean Sea
Answer» C. Pacific Ocean
Explanation: El Nino occurs over Pacific Ocean. El Nino is a southerly, warm ocean current.

Convectional Rainfall occurs in:

A. Equatorial region
B. Temperate region
C. Tropical region
D. Polar region
Answer» A. Equatorial region
Explanation: Convection rain commonly occurs in warmed or heated areas such as equatorial/tropical regions, where there is almost daily occurrence and even distribution of rain, and temperate areas in summer. It is also common in the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). It happens when the ground surface is locally overheated and the adjacent air, heated by conduction,expands and rises.

Land and sea-breezes occur due to :

A. Conduction
B. Convection
C. Radiation
D. Tides
Answer» B. Convection
Explanation: During the day, the sun warming the land also warms the air. Since land heats up quicker than water does, the air over land gets warmer than the air over the water. Consequently, the warmer air, being less dense moves up. To fill its place the cooler air over the water moves in to fill its place creating what is known as a Sea Breeze. Reversely, at night the land cools down faster than the water does, and creates a Land Breeze.

Depression formed due to deflating action of winds are called –

A. Playas
B. Yardang
C. Ventifacts
D. Sand dunes
Answer» B. Yardang
Explanation: A yardang is a streamlined hill carved from bedrock or any consolidated or semiconsolidated material by the dual action of wind abrasion, dust and sand, and deflation. Yardangs become elongated features typically three or more times longer than wide, and when viewed from above, resemble the hull of a boat.

Which one of the following is the highest cloud?

A. Cirrus
B. Stratocumulus
C. Nimbostratus
D. Cumulus
Answer» A. Cirrus
Explanation: Cirrus clouds are thin, wispy clouds blown by high winds into long streamers. They are considered "high clouds" forming above 6000 m (20,000 ft). Cirrus clouds usually move across the sky from west to east. They generally mean fair to pleasant weather.

Wind rose represents –

A. wind turbulence
B. wind data
C. wind pressure
D. wind temperature
Answer» A. wind turbulence
Explanation: A Typhoons are common in the China Sea and along the margins of the west Pacific Ocean.

The layer of the atmosphere in which Radio Waves are reflected back is called-

A. Ionosphere
B. Troposphere
C. Stratosphere
D. Exosphere
Answer» A. Ionosphere
Explanation: The Radio waves are reflected back to Earth in the Ionosphere which is an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere. This process is used to communicate beyond the horizon, atintercontinental distances, mostly in the shortwave frequency bands.

Which one of the following is the greatest circle?

A. Arctic Circle
B. Equator
C. Tropic of Cancer
D. Tropic of Capricorn
Answer» B. Equator
Explanation: A great circle, also known as an orthodrome or Riemannian circle, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane which passes through the center point of the sphere, as opposed to a general circle of a sphere where the plane is not required to pass through the center. The equator is the circle that is equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole. It divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. Of the parallels or circles of latitude, it is the longest, and the only 'great circle' (in that it is a circle on the surface of the earth, centered on the center of the earth).

Hanging Valley is formed due to the action of –

A. Glacier
B. River
C. Ocean
D. Wind
Answer» A. Glacier
Explanation: A hanging valley is a tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows. They are most commonly associated with U-shaped valleys when a tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume. The main glacier erodes a deep U-shaped valley with nearly vertical sides while the tributary glacier, with a smaller volume of ice, makes a shallower U-shaped valley. Since the surfaces of the glaciers were originally at the same elevation, the shallower valley appears to be 'hanging' above the main valley

Mica is found in which one of the following pairs of rocks?

A. Slate- Sandstone
B. Schist-Gneiss
C. Limestone-Sandstone
D. Shale- Limestone
Answer» B. Schist-Gneiss
Explanation: The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. Gneissic rocks are usually medium- to coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry largequantities of micas, chlorite or other platy minerals. Mica minerals make some rocks sparkle! They are often found in igneous rocks such as granite and metamorphic rocks such as schist. Most schists are mica schists, but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. Schist is a crystalline metamorphic rock, mostly composed of more than 50% tabular and elongated minerals.

The Mohorovicic (Moho) Discontinuity separates –

A. Outer core and Mantle
B. Inner and Outer core
C. Sima and Nife
D. Crust and Mantle
Answer» D. Crust and Mantle
Explanation: The Mohorovicic discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle. Named after the pioneering Croatian seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic, the Moho separates both the oceanic crust and continental crust from underlying mantle. The Moho mostly lies entirely within the lithosphere; only beneath mid-ocean ridges does it define the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary.

The latitude of a place is expressed by its angular distance in relation to—

A. Equator
B. South Pole
C. Axis of the Earth
D. North Pole
Answer» A. Equator
Explanation: Latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface. The lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east-west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles.

Hanging Valley is very common in –

A. high mountains
B. sub-Arctic region
C. glaciated areas
D. coastal belt
Answer» B. sub-Arctic region
Explanation: When the glaciers melt, the tributary troughs are left as hanging valleys high on the walls of the main glacial valley. A hanging valley is a tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows. They are most commonly associated with U-shaped valleys when a tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume.

Which of the following is a typical feature of river erosion in youthful stage?

A. Ox-bow lake
B. Gorge
C. Valley in valley
D. Cut-bank
Answer» B. Gorge
Explanation: Youthful rivers or streams are typically found in the highland or mountainous areas. They are characterized by steep slopes, a relatively small volume of water and rapid flow. Soil particles carried by youthful streams flow along the ground, wearing down hill slopes as the water flows down. In this youthful stage of the river, such features as small lakes, waterfalls, rapids, V-shaped valleys, gorges and interlocking spurs are frequently found.

Which one of the following is not the result of underground water action?

A. Stalactites
B. Stalagmites
C. Sinkholes
D. Fiords
Answer» D. Fiords
Explanation: Geologically, a ford is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. A fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock.

The cup-shaped mouth of the volcano is

A. Focus
B. Epicentre
C. Crater
D. Cinder cone
Answer» C. Crater
Explanation: A bowl-shaped depression that is at the mouth of a volcano or geyser is called a volcanic crater. These craters are caused by the volcano's activity. It is a vent.

The stagnant water at the bottom of a lake is called –

A. Epilimnion
B. Mesolimnion
C. Metalimnion
D. Hypolimnion
Answer» D. Hypolimnion
Explanation: The top band of a lake is called the epilimnion; while the middle band is called the thermocline and holds water whose temperature varies with depth. The bottom band is called the hypolimnion and holds cool, stagnant water which is all the same temperature.

'Willow' for a cricket bat is obtained from –

A. Tropical forests
B. Rain forests
C. Deciduous forests
D. Coniferous forests
Answer» C. Deciduous forests
Explanation: Willow is a species of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Willow wood is also used in the manufacture of boxes, brooms, cricket bats (grown from certain strains of white willow), cradle boards, etc.

The longest river in Asia is –

A. River Indus
B. River Yangtze
C. River Hwang Ho
D. River Ganga
Answer» B. River Yangtze
Explanation: The Yangtze River is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. It flows for 6,300 kilometers from the glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai.

A landscape which is caused due to the fissure in the earth along which one side has moved down with reference to the other is known as –

A. Rift Valley
B. U Shaped Valley
C. V Shaped Valley
D. Hanging Valley
Answer» B. U Shaped Valley
Explanation: A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland caused due to the fissure in the earth along which one side moves down with reference to the other. It is commonly seen between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault. A rift valley is formed on a divergent plate boundary, a crustal extension, a spreading apart of the surface.

Sink hole is a phenomenon of –

A. Plain
B. Desert
C. Tundra
D. Karst
Answer» D. Karst
Explanation: Karst topography, a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum, characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. A sinkhole is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. They are common where the rock below the land surface is limestone or other carbonate rock, that can be dissolved naturally by circulating ground water.

Among the following, the celestial body farthest from the Earth is –

A. Saturn
B. Uranus
C. Neptune
D. Pluto
Answer» C. Neptune
Explanation: Pluto, formal designation 134340 Pluto, is the second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System (after Eris) and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun. Originally classified as the ninth planet from the Sun, Pluto was recategorized as a dwarf planet and plutoid owing to the discovery that it is only one of several large bodies within the Kuiper belt. Like other members of the Kuiper belt, Pluto is composed primarily of rock and ice and is relatively small, approximately onesixth the mass of the Earth's Moon and one-third its volume.

Pulsars are –

A. stars moving towards the Earth
B. stars moving away from Earth
C. rapidly spinning stars
D. high temperature stars
Answer» C. rapidly spinning stars
Explanation: The word "pulsar" is a contraction of "pulsating star. A pulsar is formed when a massive star collapses exhausts its supply of fuel. It blasts out in a giant explosion known as a supernova, the most powerful and violent event in the universe. Without the opposing force of nuclear fusion to balance it, gravity begins to pull the mass of the star inward until it implodes. In a pulsar, gravity compacts the mass of the star until it forms an object composed primarily of neutrons packed so tightly that they no longer exist as normal matter.

Which of the following is called "Blue Planer”?

A. Saturn
B. Earth
C. Jupiter
D. Mars
Answer» B. Earth
Explanation: Earth is the Blue Planet because of the vast encompass of oceans on its surface. From space the oceans combined with the atmosphere makes the planet look blue. The abundance of water on Earth's surface is a unique feature that distinguishes the "Blue Planet" from others in the Solar System.

When does the sun shine vertically on the Equator?

A. Throughout the year
B. For six months
C. Twice a year
D. Once a year
Answer» C. Twice a year
Explanation: When the Sun is vertically above the equator, the day is of equal length all over Earth. This happens twice a year, and these are the "equinoxes" in March and in September. Between the two tropic zones, which includes the equator, the Sun is directly over-head twice per year. Outside the tropic zones, whether to the south or north, the Sun is never directly overhead.

Which of the following is the lowest atmospheric layer?

A. Lithosphere
B. Stratosphere
C. Troposphere
D. Hydrosphere
Answer» C. Troposphere
Explanation: The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere. It starts at Earth's surface and goes up to a height of 7 to 20 km above sea level. Most of the mass (about 75- 80%) of the atmosphere is in the troposphere. Almost all weather occurs within this layer.

"Tsunami" is the name given to which of the following?

A. Earthquake
B. Cyclone
C. Tidal Waves
D. Undersea Waves
Answer» A. Earthquake
Explanation: A tsunami or tidal wave is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.

Bamboo is classified as –

A. Tree
B. Grass
C. Shrub
D. Herb
Answer» B. Grass
Explanation: Bambooare a subfamily (Bambusoideae) of flowering perennial evergreen plants in the grass family Poaceae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. The woody bamboos share characteristics with herbaceous (non-woody) grasses, notably leaf blades that have a distinctive internal organization of the tissues and which are basally narrowed to form a stalk- like connection with the leaf sheath.

The transfer of minerals from top soil to subsoil through soil-water is called?

A. Percolation
B. Conduction
C. Leaching
D. Transpiration
Answer» C. Leaching
Explanation: Leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. As water from rain, flooding, or other sources seeps into the ground, it can dissolve chemicals and carry them into the underground water supply. Mineral nutrients lost from the soil system become unavailable for plant uptake.

Tropical rain forest is characterised by

A. Absence of trees
B. Least productivity
C. Maximum biodiversity
D. Minimum biodiversity
Answer» C. Maximum biodiversity
Explanation: Tropical rainforests exhibit high levels of biodiversity. Around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. [6] Rainforests are home to half of all the living animal and plant species on the planet. Two- thirds of all flowering plants can be found in rainforests.

Natural sources of air pollution are –

A. Forest fires
B. Volcanic eruptions
C. Dust storm
D. Smoke from burning dry leaves
Answer» B. Volcanic eruptions
Explanation: Some of the natural sources of air pollution are ground dust, salt spray from oceans, volcanic eruptions, hydrogen sulfides from natural sources, etc. Large amount of gases and ash from volcanic eruptions blacken the skies and increase the background pollution levels for years.

Black soil is also known by which of the following name?

A. Khadar Soil
B. Bangar Soil
C. Alluivial Soil
D. Regur soil
Answer» D. Regur soil
Explanation: Black soils are often referred to as regur but are popularly known as "black cotton soils," since cotton has been the most common traditional crop in areas where they are found. Black soils are derivatives of trap lava and are spread mostly across interior Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Madhya Pradesh on the Deccan lava plateau and the Malwa Plateau.

Salination of soil is caused by –

A. pesticides
B. soil erosion
C. excess irrigation
D. crop rotation
Answer» C. excess irrigation
Explanation: Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil: the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Excess irrigation leads to increase in soli salinity since water is absorbed by plants and salts are left behind in the soil and eventually begin to accumulate. Salination from irrigation water is also greatly increased by poor drainage and use of saline water for irrigating agricultural crops.

A stretch of sea water, partly or fully separated by a narrow strip from the main sea is called

A. Bay
B. Isthmus
C. Lagoon
D. Strait
Answer» C. Lagoon
Explanation: Lagoon is a shallow stretch of water which is partly or completely separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land. In the case of coral reef, it is a channel of sea water between the reef and the main land. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world.

The organic matter present in soil is known collectively as –

A. Hydrocarbons
B. Podsols
C. Humus
D. Colloids
Answer» C. Humus
Explanation: The organic matter present in soil is known collectively as humus. Humus is fully decomposed and finely divided organic matter. Dune is a hill or ridge of sand accumulated and sorted by wind action.

Neap tides are –

A. Strong
B. Weak
C. Medium
D. Very strong
Answer» B. Weak
Explanation: Neap tides are especially weak tides. They occur when the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun are perpendicular to one another (with respect to the Earth). Neap tides occur during quarter moons.

The Ocean with the largest surface area is –

A. Arctic Ocean
B. Atlantic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Pacific Ocean
Answer» D. Pacific Ocean
Explanation: At 165.25 million square kilometers in area, the Pacific Ocean is the largest division of the World Ocean - and, in turn, the hydrosphere. It covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined.

The Mediterranean region are characterized by heavy rain in:

A. Winter
B. Spring
C. Autumn
D. Summer
Answer» A. Winter
Explanation: During summer season, regions of Mediterranean climate are dominated by subtropical high pressure cells, making rainfall impossible or unlikely except for the occasional thunderstorm. During winter the polar jet stream and associated periodic storms bring heavy rain. Precipitation is heavier during the colder months.

The science of map-making is –

A. Cartography
B. Geography
C. Carpology
D. Geology
Answer» A. Cartography
Explanation: Cartography (chartes or charax = sheet of papyrus (paper) and graphein = to write) is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

An artificial ecosystem is represented by

A. pisciculture tank
B. agricultural land
C. zoo
D. aquarium
Answer» D. aquarium
Explanation: An artificial ecosystem is one created by people. You can create an artificial ecosystem in an aquarium or terrarium. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward is credited as the inventor of the terrarium, which he accidently created in 1829.

Which is the most stable ecosystem?

A. Desert
B. Ocean
C. Mountain
D. Forest
Answer» B. Ocean
Explanation: Ecosystem can be natural or man- made, large or small, permanent or temporary, complete or incomplete, Natural ecosystem. It is an ecosystem developed -under natural conditions without any appreciable human interference. Natural ecosystem can be terrestrial (e.g., forest, desert, grassland) or aquatic (e.g., fresh water, lake, pond, river, sea). Oceans constitute the most stable ecosystem.

Which of the following exhibits unidirectional flow in an ecosystem?

A. Light
B. Energy
C. Water
D. Biomass
Answer» B. Energy
Explanation: Ecosystems contain essentially two kinds of commodities: matter (nutrients) andenergy. Material nutrients cycle through the biotic and abiotic parts of the ecosystem, available for repeated use by the organisms in the ecosystem's community. However, energy enters an ecosystem by being used to convert low-energy carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrate, then passes through one or more of the organisms of the community, and is then lost to the ecosystem. Eventually, all of the energy that enters the ecosystem is lost in the form of heat.

The one who is engaged in scientific drawing of maps is called –

A. Geographer
B. Cartographer
C. Meteorologist
D. Geologist
Answer» B. Cartographer
Explanation: A person who draws maps and charts is a cartographer. Cartographers are persons specially trained in the art and skill of map and chart making. Cartographers, that is, those who draw and prepare charts, need a very good knowledge of geography and the related details, and should also have the art of illustrating the different features of a place very vividly and clearly by using different colors and symbols.

Rubber plantations are found in –

A. Temperate forests
B. Mountain regions
C. Polar regions
D. Equatorial regions
Answer» D. Equatorial regions
Explanation: The rubber plant grows wild in the equatorial regions of the world which are marked by rainfall of around 250 cm evenly distributed without any marked dry season and with at least 100 rainy days per year; temperature range of about 20°C to 34°C with a monthly mean of 25°C to 28°C; and high atmospheric humidity of around 80%.The three largest producing countries, Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, together account for around 72% of all natural rubber production.

The main cause of Tsunami is :

A. Volcanoes
B. Cyclones
C. Earthquake on sea floor
D. Moon's attraction
Answer» C. Earthquake on sea floor
Explanation: A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.

Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the –

A. Earth on the Moon
B. Earth on the Sun
C. Sun and Moon on the Earth
D. Moon on the Earth
Answer» C. Sun and Moon on the Earth
Explanation: Tide-generating forces (TGF) are a result of the gravitational attraction between the earth, the sun, and the moon and the centrifugal force due to the relative motions of the moon around the earth, and the earth around the sun. While these forces exactly balance on average, the local mismatch at the earth's surface creates a horizontal force directed towards the surface points closest and farthest from the moon.

Very strong and cold icy winds that blow in the Polar regions are called –

A. Typhoons
B. Tornadoes
C. Blizzards
D. Polar winds
Answer» C. Blizzards
Explanation: A blizzard is a severe snowstorm characterized by strong winds and low temperatures. The difference between a blizzardand a snowstorm is the strength of the wind. To be a blizzard, a snow storm must have sustained winds or frequent gusts that are greater than or equal to 56 km/h (35 mph) with blowing or drifting snow which reduces visibility to 400 meters or a quarter mile or less and must last for a prolonged period of time — typically three hours or more.

Condensation is the reverse of –

A. Vaporization
B. Smog
C. Cirrus cloud
D. Fog
Answer» A. Vaporization
Explanation: Condensation is the change of physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase and is the reverse of vaporization. When the relative humidity reaches 100 per cent, the air is completely saturated. The air temperature is said to be as dew-point.

In atmosphere the lowermost layer is –

A. troposphere
B. exosphere
C. ionosphere
D. strato sphere
Answer» A. troposphere
Explanation: The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and aerosols. The average depth of the troposphere is approximately 17 km in the middle latitudes. It is deeper in the tropics, up to 20 kin, and shallower near the Polar Regions, at 7 km in summer, and indistinct in winter. Most of the phenomena we associate with day-to-day weather occur in the troposphere

The lower layer of atmosphere is called

A. exosphere
B. troposphere
C. ionosphere
D. mesosphere
Answer» B. troposphere
Explanation: The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, The air is very well mixed and the temperature decreases with altitude.

Frontal Rain is caused by –

A. Convection current
B. Winds from sea
C. Cyclonic activity
D. Condensation of water evaporated from mountains
Answer» C. Cyclonic activity
Explanation: Frontal rainfall is a type of precipitation which occurs when a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet. Extra-tropical cyclones form as waves along weather fronts before occluding later in their life cycle as cold core cyclones. Cyclogenesis is the development or strengthening of cyclonic circulation in the atmosphere (a low pressure area).

Smog is a combination of –

A. air and water vapour
B. water and smoke
C. fire and water
D. smoke and fog
Answer» D. smoke and fog
Explanation: The term "smog' was first used in London during the early 1900's to describe the combination of smoke and fog. What we typically call "smog" today is a mixture of pollutants but is primarily made up of ground- level ozone.

The deposits of the ancient Tethys Sea were folded to form the :

A. Himalayas
B. Rockies
C. Andes
D. Alps
Answer» A. Himalayas
Explanation: Around 200 million years ago (also known as the Middle Permian Period), an extensive sea stretched along the latitudinal area presently occupied by the Himalayas. This sea was named the Tethys. Around this period, thesuper continent Pangaea began to gradually split into different land masses and move apart in different directions.

Which one of the following types of erosion is responsible for the formation of Chambal Ravines?

A. Splash
B. Sheet
C. Rill
D. Gully
Answer» D. Gully
Explanation: Chambal ravine formation significantly increases soil loss from agricultural lands and severely impacts agricultural productivity. A review of ephemeral gully erosion and spreading rates of the ravenous tracks of Lower Chambal Valley using geospatial tools shows that both the ravenous and the marginal lands have increased during the last 15 years.

The tropical grassland is called –

A. Pampas
B. Llanas
C. Savanah
D. Veld
Answer» C. Savanah
Explanation: Tropical grasslands (Savannas) are located near the equator, between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. They cover much of Africa as well as large areas of Australia, South America, and India. They are found in tropical wet and dry climates. These areas are hot year-round, usually never dropping under 64 degrees Fahrenheit. Although these areas are overall very dry, they do have a season of, heavy rain. Annual rainfall is from 20-50 inches per year.

The topography of plateau is ideal for –

A. cultivation
B. forestry
C. mining
D. generation of hydro power
Answer» D. generation of hydro power
Explanation: The prospect of producing electricity from the hydrological resources of the Plateau region lies not, as has been suggested, in the 'region's fast flowing rivers'. The flow rate of most rivers in the region is relatively slow. However, the sloped topography of the plateau itself provides enormous capacity to generate electricity. All existing and planned hydropower projects in the region are based on the simple engineering principle of utilizing gravity to generate energy from the region's rivers. The steep escarpments found in the south-eastern portion of the region provide the natural topographical mechanism to subject the region's water resources to the energy-producing force of gravity.

Desertification can be checked by –

A. plugging gullies
B. checking over-grazing
C. contour ploughing
D. forming shelter belts
Answer» B. checking over-grazing
Explanation: Overgrazing is the major cause of desertification worldwide. Plants of semi-arid areas are adapted to being eaten by sparsely scattered, large, grazing mammals which move in response to the patchy rainfall common to these regions. Early human pastoralists living in semi-arid areas copied this natural system. They moved their small groups of domestic animals in response to food and water availability. Such regular stock movement prevented overgrazing of the fragile plant cover.

In an iceberg floating in the sea, out of 10 parts of its mass, how much will remain above the surface of the water?

A. 1 part
B. 2 parts
C. 4 parts
D. 6 parts
Answer» A. 1 part
Explanation: Because the density of pure ice is about 920 kg/m3, and that of sea water about1025 kg/m3, typically only one-ninth of the volume of an iceberg is above water.

The main cause of recurring flood is –

A. Soil erosion
B. Deforestation
C. Silting of river beds
D. All of the above
Answer» D. All of the above
Explanation: Floods are caused by a variety of factors, both natural and man-made. Apart from soil erosion and silting of river beds which force the water of rivers/streams to spill over, deforestation has lately been a key factor in fostering recurrent floods. The presence of trees act as checks against water flow and in turn protect the underlying soil from getting eroded and then getting washed away.

Moraines are formed in –

A. River deltas
B. Arid regions
C. Glacial regions
D. Monsoon region
Answer» C. Glacial regions
Explanation: A moraine is material left behind by a moving glacier. This material is usually soil and rock. Just as rivers carry along all sorts of debris and silt that eventually builds up to form deltas, glaciers transport all sorts of dirt and boulders that build up to form moraines.

The Himalayan mountain range is an example of –

A. Volcanic mountain
B. Residual mountain
C. Block mountain
D. Fold mountain
Answer» D. Fold mountain
Explanation: The Himalaya are among the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consist mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rock. They are Fold Mountains which were formed due to a continental collision or orogeny along the convergent boundarybetween the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.

The area marked by internal drainage

A. Plateau
B. Plains
C. Deserts
D. Mountains
Answer» C. Deserts
Explanation: Internal drainage is a closed drainage basin that retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps. Such drainage can occur in any climate but are most commonly found in desert locations. For example: Luni River in Rajasthan has an internal drainage system.

Why is the South Pole colder than the North Pole?

A. High altitude
B. More rainfall
C. Strong winds
D. Away from the sun
Answer» A. High altitude
Explanation: Both the Arctic (North Pole) and the Antarctic (South Pole) are cold because they don't get any direct sunlight. What makes the South Pole so much colder than the North Pole is that it sits on top of a very thick ice sheet, which itself sits on a continent. The surface of the ice sheet at the South Pole is more than 9,000 feet in elevation—more than a mile and a half above sea level. This elevation makes the South Pole much colder than the North Pole, which sits in the middle of the Arctic Ocean (National Geographic).

               is the thinnest layer of Earth.

A. Mantle
B. Outer Core
C. Crust
D. Inner Core
Answer» C. Crust
Explanation: The Earth can be divided into four main layers: the solid crust on the outside, themantle, the outer core and the inner core. Out of them, the mantle is the thickest layer (extends from where the crust ends to about 2,890 km), while the crust is the thinnest layer. The crust ranges from 5-70 km in depth and is the outermost layer.

Why the Earth is having its own atmosphere?

A. Winds
B. Clouds
C. Gravity
D. Rotation of the Earth
Answer» C. Gravity
Explanation: 0

The number of satellites of the planet is Mercury is –

A. '0'
B. 1
C. 2
D. 16
Answer» A. '0'
Explanation: The nearness of Mercury to the massive gravity influence of the Sun is the likely reason that no natural satellites are present, although it is possible that one or more may have existed in the past.

Which of the following does not belong to the solar system?

A. Asteroids
B. Comets
C. Planets
D. Nebulae
Answer» D. Nebulae
Explanation: A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Originally, nebula was a name for any extended astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was referred to as the Andromeda Nebula before galaxies were discovered by Edwin Hubble.

The planet nearest to the Sun is –

A. Earth
B. Mercury
C. Mars
D. Venus
Answer» B. Mercury
Explanation: Mercury is the innermost planet (nearest to the Sun) in the Solar System. It is also the smallest, and its orbit is the most eccentric (that is, the least perfectly circular) of the eight planets. It orbits the Sun once in about 88 Earth days, completing three rotations about its axis for every two orbits.

Which of these is a dwarf planet?

A. Neptune
B. Titan
C. Eris
D. Hydra
Answer» C. Eris
Explanation: Eris is the most massive and second-largest dwarf planet known in the Solar System. It is 27% more massive than dwarf planet Pluto. Eris is the ninth-most-massive known body directly orbiting the Sun, and the largest known body in the Solar System not visited by a spacecraft.

What process takes place during the youthful stage of a river?

A. Valley widening
B. River rejuvenating
C. Valley deepening
D. Meandering
Answer» C. Valley deepening
Explanation: The youthful stage of the river is when water flow is the quickest. Because of steep slope and steep channel gradient in this stage, rivers actively deepen their valleys through vertical erosion. The valley becomes deep and narrow characterized by steep valley side slopes of convex plan. Waterfalls, Vshaped valleys and interlocking spurs are features of this stage.

Winds blowing constantly in one direction in rocky deserts form –

A. Chimneys
B. Mushrooms rocks
C. Yardangs
D. Demoiselles
Answer» C. Yardangs
Explanation: In regions of rocky deserts, wind abrasion excavates the bands of softer rocks into long, narrow corridors, separating the steep- sided over-hanging ridges of hard rocks, called yardangs. Instead of lying in horizontal strata upon one another, the hard and soft rocks of yardangs are vertical bands and are aligned in the direction of the prevailing winds.

Rainfall caused by intense evaporation in equatorial areas is called               .

A. Orographic rainfall
B. Cyclonic rainfall
C. Frontal rainfall
D. Convectional rainfall
Answer» D. Convectional rainfall
Explanation: The equatorial regions are known for convectional rainfall that occurs due to the thermal convection currents caused due to the heating of ground due to insolation. In these, the warm air rises up and expands then, reaches at a cooler layer and saturates, then condenses mainly in the form of cumulus or cumulonimbus clouds. The equatorial regions receive convectional rainfall almost on a daily basis. The rainfall is of very short duration but in the form of heavy showers.

Ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere is absorbed by –

A. SO2
B. Ozone
C. Oxygen
D. Argon
Answer» B. Ozone
Explanation: The ozone layer of Earth's stratosphere absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. It absorbs 97 to 99 percent of the Sun's medium-frequency ultravi-olet light (from about 200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which otherwise would potentially damage exposed life forms on the earth.

The gentle 'seaward sloping surface from the coasts is called               .

A. Continental shelf
B. Continental rise
C. Abyssal plains
D. Submarine ridges
Answer» A. Continental shelf
Explanation: Continental Shelf is a gentle seaward sloping surface extending from the coasts towards the open sea. In all, about 7.5% of the total area of the oceans is covered by the continental shelves. The shelf is formed by the drowning of a part of a continent with a relative rise in sea level or marine deposition beneath the water.

Ring of Fire is found commonly in       .

A. Pacific Ocean
B. Atlantic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Arctic Ocean
Answer» A. Pacific Ocean
Explanation: The Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. It has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt.

Who of the following has given the term rhizoshcre :

A. Garret
B. Alexopolus
C. Hiltner
D. None of the given options
Answer» C. Hiltner
Explanation: Lorenz Hiltner is recognized as the first scientist to coin the term "rhizosphere" in 1904. The word is derived from the Greek word 'rhiza', meaning root. and 'sphere', meaning field of influence. Hiltner defined the rhizosphere as the zone of soil immediatelyadjacent to legume roots that supports high levels of bacterial activity.

The asha-grey soils of high-latitude coniferous forests a known as :

A. Tundra soils
B. Podsols
C. Grey-Brown soils
D. Red and Yellow soils
Answer» B. Podsols
Explanation: Podsols are ash-grey coloured soils that are found in high-latitude coniferous forest belt having very long cold winters, short cool summers and a moderate precipitation throughout the year. These soils are acidic. infertile and of limited value for agriculture. These are useful for dairying and mixed farming.

Species which has restricted distribution ion is called –

A. Eco species
B. Endemic
C. Sympatric
D. Allopatric
Answer» B. Endemic
Explanation: Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. Species found in such restricted geographical area are called endemic species.

The space retaining life in any form is called –

A. Biomass
B. Biosphere
C. Lithosphere
D. Hydrosphere
Answer» B. Biosphere
Explanation: The biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the litho-sphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. It is termed the zone of life on Earth.

The well through which water comes out through hydraulic pressure is called –

A. Ordinary well
B. Tube well
C. Deep tube well
D. Artesian well
Answer» D. Artesian well
Explanation: Artesian Well refers to a type of well that normally gives a continuous flow, the water being forced upwards by hydraulic pressure.

Maps on large scale, representing both natural and man-made features are called –

A. Wall maps
B. Topographic maps
C. Thematic maps
D. Atlas maps
Answer» B. Topographic maps
Explanation: A topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map.

Contour line is the imaginary line joining places of equal :

A. Rainfall
B. Humidity
C. Elevation
D. Temperature
Answer» C. Elevation
Explanation: Contour line is a line on a map or chart joining points of equal height (elevation) or depth. Closely spaced contour lines indicate a steeper grade than the more loosely spaced lines.

The primary goal of planning for disasters is to reduce –

A. Death
B. Damage
C. Risk
D. Vulnerability
Answer» D. Vulnerability
Explanation: Disaster planning is the creation of plans through which communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disasters. It does not avert or eliminate the threats; instead it focuses on creating plans to decrease the impact of disasters.

Which of the following is a Bio-logical method of soil conservations?

A. Contour fanning
B. Contour terracing
C. Gully control
D. Basin listing
Answer» A. Contour fanning
Explanation: The biological methods of soil conservation include contour farming, strip cropping, tillage operation, mulching, etc. Contour farming is practiced in the hilly regions or on the slopes. The contours (circular or peripheral furrows) catch the downwardly moving water until it is absorbed in the soil. It reduces run off, saves more water for crops, and reduces soil erosion.

With what bio-region is the term "Steppe" associated?

A. Grasslands
B. Tropical forests
C. Savanna
D. Coniferous forests
Answer» A. Grasslands
Explanation: The Steppe is a dry, cold, grassland that is found in all of the continents except Australia and Antarctica. It is mostly found in the USA, Mongolia, Siberia, Tibet and China, is usually found between the desert and the forest.

In which region is Terrace farming done?

A. Dry regions
B. Slope of hills
C. Mountain tops
D. Rooftops
Answer» B. Slope of hills
Explanation: Terrace farming is the practice of cutting flat areas out of a hilly or mountainous landscape in of to grow crops. It involves growing crops on sides of hills or mountains by planting on graduated terraces built into the slope. On each level, various crops are planted.

Alluvial soils are rich soil for crop cultivation but are poor in–

A. humus
B. nitrogen and humus
C. organic material
D. inorganic material
Answer» B. nitrogen and humus
Explanation: Alluvial soils are fertile soils composed of sediments deposited by rivers and the waves. However, they are usually deficient in nitrogen and humus. Nitrogen deficiency is the main limiting factor in crop product ion in all the alluvial soils except the calcareous and saline alkali alluvial soils. With suitable irrigation, fertilizers and proper agricultural practices, alluvial soils are generally very fertile.

"Great Barrier Reef”, the world's largest Coral reef is located in –

A. Caribbean Islands
B. Australia
C. Philippines
D. Indonesia
Answer» B. Australia
Explanation: The Great Barrier Reef is situated off the coast of Queensland in northeastern Australia. It is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres.

The highest grade and best quality coal is –

A. Lignite
B. Peat
C. Bituminous
D. Anthracite
Answer» D. Anthracite
Explanation: Anthracite is usually considered to be the highest grade of coal and is actually considered to be metamorphic. Compared to other coals it is much harder, has a glassy luster, and is denser and blacker with few impurities. It is largely used for heating domestically as it burns with little smoke.
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