explanation:-Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, athlete, astronomer, and music theorist. He was the first person to use the word -geography in Greek and he invented the discipline of geography as we understand it.
explanation:-Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.
explanation:-The Sunda Trench, earlier known as the Java Trench, is the deepest point in the Indian Ocean. It is located in the northeastern Indian Ocean, with a length of 3,200 kilometres. The trench is considered to be part of the Pacific Ring of Fire as well as one of a ring of oceanic trenches around the northern edges of the Australian Plate.
4. The layer where the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude is totally absent is –
explanation:-The stratosphere defines a layer in which temperatures rises with increasing altitude. At the top of the stratosphere the thin air may attain temperatures close to 0°C. This rise in temperature is caused by the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun by the ozone layer. Such a temperature profile creates very stable atmospheric conditions. Consequently, the stratosphere is almost completely free of clouds or other forms of weather.
explanation:-An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components oftheir environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. They are biological system in the sense that they represent recurring groups of biological communities that are found in similar physical environments and are influenced by similar dynamic ecological processes, such as fire or flooding.
6. After which one of the following tribes of India, has a large continent of ancient geological history of the world been named?
explanation:-In paleo-geography, Gondwana, originally Gondwanaland, was the southern most of two supercontinents that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent. It existed from approximately 510 to 180 million years ago. It included most of the landmasses in today's Southern Hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar and the Australian continent, as well as the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent, which have now moved entirely into the Northern Hemisphere.
explanation:-Loam encompasses a variety of soil types, some granulated and nicely draining, while others may be thicker and have the consistency of mud. Most loam soils are a brown or black colour, making them ideal for gardens. It is often the most preferred type for plant growth and does well with just about any species. Large plants and trees, including maples and poplars, are both commonly found growingin loam soil. Loam is a Combination of small rock particles, organic matter and nutrients, often in ideal combinations for healthy plant growth. The granular soil retains water very easily, yet the drainage is well. Loamy soil is composed of 40 % sand, 40% silt and 20% clay.
8. What is the interval between a high tide and neaptide at a given place?
explanation:-Tide clocks are popular clocks used amongst surfers, sailors, and anyone else who is concerned with the tidal cycle. They run on a 12 hour and 25 or 26 minute cycle, which is the time it takes for the high tide to ebb and flow back to high tide again.
9. Seismic sea waves which approach the coasts at greater force arc known as –
explanation:-A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impadts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to as tidal waves.
10. Which of the following is a cold ocean current?
explanation:-The Humboldt Current , also known as the Peru Current, is a cold, low- salinity ocean current that flows north-westward along the west coast of South America from the southern tip of Chile to northern Peru. It is an eastern boundary current flowing in the direction of the equator, and can extend 1,000 kilometers offshore. The Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem (LME), named after the Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, is one of the major upwelling systems of the world, supporting an extraordinary abundance of marine life.
11. In sea, plants are restricted up to the depth of –
explanation:-Convection rain commonly occurs in warmed or heated areas such as equatorial/tropical regions, where there is almost daily occurrence and even distribution of rain, and temperate areas in summer. It is also common in the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). It happens when the ground surface is locally overheated and the adjacent air, heated by conduction,expands and rises.
explanation:-During the day, the sun warming the land also warms the air. Since land heats up quicker than water does, the air over land gets warmer than the air over the water. Consequently, the warmer air, being less dense moves up. To fill its place the cooler air over the water moves in to fill its place creating what is known as a Sea Breeze. Reversely, at night the land cools down faster than the water does, and creates a Land Breeze.
15. Depression formed due to deflating action of winds are called –
explanation:-A yardang is a streamlined hill carved from bedrock or any consolidated or semiconsolidated material by the dual action of wind abrasion, dust and sand, and deflation. Yardangs become elongated features typically three or more times longer than wide, and when viewed from above, resemble the hull of a boat.
16. Which one of the following is the highest cloud?
explanation:-Cirrus clouds are thin, wispy clouds blown by high winds into long streamers. They are considered "high clouds" forming above 6000 m (20,000 ft). Cirrus clouds usually move across the sky from west to east. They generally mean fair to pleasant weather.
explanation:-The Radio waves are reflected back to Earth in the Ionosphere which is an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere. This process is used to communicate beyond the horizon, atintercontinental distances, mostly in the shortwave frequency bands.
19. Which one of the following is the greatest circle?
explanation:-A great circle, also known as an orthodrome or Riemannian circle, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane which passes through the center point of the sphere, as opposed to a general circle of a sphere where the plane is not required to pass through the center. The equator is the circle that is equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole. It divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. Of the parallels or circles of latitude, it is the longest, and the only 'great circle' (in that it is a circle on the surface of the earth, centered on the center of the earth).
20. Hanging Valley is formed due to the action of –
explanation:-A hanging valley is a tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows. They are most commonly associated with U-shaped valleys when a tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume. The main glacier erodes a deep U-shaped valley with nearly vertical sides while the tributary glacier, with a smaller volume of ice, makes a shallower U-shaped valley. Since the surfaces of the glaciers were originally at the same elevation, the shallower valley appears to be 'hanging' above the main valley
21. Mica is found in which one of the following pairs of rocks?
explanation:-The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. Gneissic rocks are usually medium- to coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry largequantities of micas, chlorite or other platy minerals. Mica minerals make some rocks sparkle! They are often found in igneous rocks such as granite and metamorphic rocks such as schist. Most schists are mica schists, but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. Schist is a crystalline metamorphic rock, mostly composed of more than 50% tabular and elongated minerals.
22. The Mohorovicic (Moho) Discontinuity separates –
explanation:-The Mohorovicic discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle. Named after the pioneering Croatian seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic, the Moho separates both the oceanic crust and continental crust from underlying mantle. The Moho mostly lies entirely within the lithosphere; only beneath mid-ocean ridges does it define the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary.
23. The latitude of a place is expressed by its angular distance in relation to—
explanation:-Latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface. The lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east-west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles.
explanation:-When the glaciers melt, the tributary troughs are left as hanging valleys high on the walls of the main glacial valley. A hanging valley is a tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows. They are most commonly associated with U-shaped valleys when a tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume.
25. Which of the following is a typical feature of river erosion in youthful stage?
explanation:-Youthful rivers or streams are typically found in the highland or mountainous areas. They are characterized by steep slopes, a relatively small volume of water and rapid flow. Soil particles carried by youthful streams flow along the ground, wearing down hill slopes as the water flows down. In this youthful stage of the river, such features as small lakes, waterfalls, rapids, V-shaped valleys, gorges and interlocking spurs are frequently found.