230+ Contemporary Social Theories Solved MCQs

1.

British sociologist __________ translated and condensed Comte’s work and was noted for her study of social customs in Great Britain and the United States.

A. Harriet Nelson.
B. Jane Addams
C. Harriet Martineau
D. Sarah Spencer
Answer» C. Harriet Martineau
2.

According to the __________ perspective, society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups.

A. functionalist
B. Conflict
C. Symbolic interactionist
D. Postmodern
Answer» C. Symbolic interactionist
3.

A __________ is anything that meaningfully represents something else and includes signs, gestures, written language, and shared values.

A. symbol
B. sociological construct
C. Norms
D. Status
Answer» A. symbol
4.

A physician wears a white lab coat and a stethoscope. The patient sees these as representing Knowledge and authority.

A. The coat and stethoscope area signals that defines the relationships between individuals.
B. symbols used to define a relationship between individuals.
C. symbols of power inequality among the individuals.
D. signs that this is a public interaction among individuals.
Answer» B. symbols used to define a relationship between individuals.
5.

From the symbolic interactionist perspective, each person's interpretation or definition of a given situation becomes a(n) __________ from that person's viewpoint

A. objective phenomenon
B. Subjective reality
C. Imagination
D. fictitious thought
Answer» B. Subjective reality
6.

According to the __________ perspective, existing theories have been unsuccessful in explaining social life in contemporary societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications.

A. functionalist
B. Conflict
C. Symbolic interactionist
D. postmodern
Answer» D. postmodern
7.

In relation to the study of education in America, __________ would look at the role the schools play in maintaining the social system as a whole; how education provides the young with skills they need later in life; and how it transmits cultural values from one generation to the next.

A. symbolic interactionists
B. postmodern theorists
C. functionalists
D. conflict theorists
Answer» C. functionalists
8.

In relation to the study of education in America, __________ would emphasize the daily activities within the schools and the various forms of communication between teachers and students. They would also examine the influence of peer groups and look at the reaction when school rules are broken or followed.

A. conflict theorists
B. symbolic interactionists
C. postmodern theorists
D. functionalists
Answer» B. symbolic interactionists
9.

In relation to the study of homelessness in American society, __________ would look at changing relationships in the family and economic conditions which causes homelessnessamong people who are unable to find jobs and do not have a family support system to fall back on.

A. symbolic interactionists
B. conflict theorists
C. postmodern theorists
D. functionalists
Answer» D. functionalists
10.

In relation to the study of homelessness in American society, __________ would place emphasis on the struggle between social classes, especially how the policies of the wealthy push certain groups into unemployment and homelessness, and would examine welfare program reform.

A. conflicttheorists
B. functionalists
C. symbolic interactionists
D. postmoderntheorists
Answer» A. conflicttheorists
11.

Foucault summarizes the current shifts in historical studies as a new 'interrogation' of what?

A. The spirit of history
B. The document
C. The statement
D. The fate of objects
Answer» B. The document
12.

Which of Foucault's books precede the Archeology of Knowledge?

A. The Order of Things,The History of Sexuality, and Birth of the Clinic
B. Birth of the Clinic,Madness and Civilization,and The History of Sexuality
C. Madness And civilization ,The order of things and birth of clinic
D. None of these
Answer» C. Madness And civilization ,The order of things and birth of clinic
13.

Which is not one of the forms of historical unity that Foucault rejects?

A. The œuvre
B. Discursive Unity
C. The progress of Reason
D. The Book
Answer» B. Discursive Unity
14.

What is the central historical field addressed by the archeological method?

A. The history of sciences
B. The history of grammar
C. Economic History
D. The history of ideas
Answer» A. The history of sciences
15.

Which is not one of the four major aspects of discursive regularity to emerge from Foucault's 'four hypotheses' about discursive unity?

A. The formation of objects
B. The formation of strategies
C. The formation of events
D. The formation of enunciative positions
Answer» C. The formation of events
16.

Which is not one of the sciences used as an example by Foucault?

A. psycopathology
B. Grammer
C. Engineering
D. Mathematics
Answer» C. Engineering
17.

An object of discourse first appears where?

A. The threshold of scientificity
B. A surface of emergence
C. The threshold of epistemolegisation
D. In conditions of possibility
Answer» B. A surface of emergence
18.

Foucault's term 'strategies' refers to what aspect of a discourse?

A. Themes and theories
B. Positionality and positivity
C. Documents and the archive
D. Successions and recurrences
Answer» A. Themes and theories
19.

Which term refers to a situation in which two incompatible objects, concepts, or types of enunciation have the same conditions of emergence and try to occupy the same discursive space?

A. Point of discontinuity
B. Point of rejection
C. Point of bifurication
D. point of diffraction
Answer» D. point of diffraction
20.

What is the basic element of discourse?

A. The document
B. The œuvre
C. The statement
D. The threshold
Answer» C. The statement
21.

The statement is defined by its what?

A. Content
B. Associated field
C. Conditions of disappearance
D. Materiality
Answer» B. Associated field
22.

Why is the statement is not reducible to the speech act?

A. Because the statement is materially grounded and the speech act is not.
B. Because the speech act may involve more than one statement.
C. Because materiality does not matter for the statement, but does for the speech act.
D. Because speech acts can be unintentional and statements cannot.
Answer» C. Because materiality does not matter for the statement, but does for the speech act.
23.

Which cannot be considered a statement?

A. A row of typewriter keys
B. A medical chart
C. A novel
D. A meaningless sentence
Answer» A. A row of typewriter keys
24.

The quality of 'material repeatability' applies to what?

A. Propositions only
B. Propositions and material documents
C. Statements only
D. Statements and material documents
Answer» C. Statements only
25.

Materiality is important in statements in what sense?

A. The sense of material institutions
B. The sense of physical material
C. The sense of the 'feel' of the material
D. The sense of the circulation of the material
Answer» A. The sense of material institutions
26.

What term can be defined as 'the units of meaning that grammar recognizes in a series of signs?'

A. Sentence
B. Statement
C. Proposition
D. Formulation
Answer» A. Sentence
27.

What term can be defined as the 'act that produces a group of signs materially?'

A. Statement
B. Propotion
C. Formulation
D. Projection
Answer» C. Formulation
28.

What term can be defined as the 'modality of existence of a series of signs?'

A. Discourse
B. Formulation
C. Archive
D. Statement
Answer» D. Statement
29.

In contrast to the history of ideas, how does the archeological method approach the field of statements?

A. As a 'plethora'
B. As a set of 'rarities'
C. As a hidden unity
D. As a totality
Answer» B. As a set of 'rarities'
30.

For archeology, a discourse is an 'expression' of what?

A. The mind of its founder
B. The spirit of the age
C. Nothing
D. The unconscious desires of a people
Answer» C. Nothing
31.

Which term has two explicitly different meanings, one in the history of ideas and one in archeology?

A. Originality
B. Regularity
C. Change
D. Linearity
Answer» B. Regularity
32.

In the history of ideas, which term can serve as both an obstacle to be overcome in the field of discourse and as a founding principle of discourse?

A. Originality
B. Regularity
C. Contradiction
D. Transformation
Answer» C. Contradiction
33.

On what basis can we analyze the ways in which science is ideological?

A. On the basis of its discursive relations
B. On the basis of its internal consistency
C. On the basis of its categorization of statements
D. On its truthfulness
Answer» A. On the basis of its discursive relations
34.

In the Conclusion, Foucault is accused of being which of the following?

A. A fundamentalist
B. A structuralist
C. A phenomenologist
D. A reactionary
Answer» B. A structuralist
35.

Comte's term 'positivism' refers to:

A. a theory that emphasizes the positive aspects of society
B. the precise, scientific study of observable phenomena
C. a theory that posits difficult questions and sets out to them
D. an unscientific set of laws about social progress
Answer» B. the precise, scientific study of observable phenomena
36.

In Marx's theory, the 'mode of production' means:

A. the way in which products are made in a factory
B. the average measure of productivity under capitalism
C. the organization of a society's technical and human resources
D. an integral part of the superstructure of a society
Answer» C. the organization of a society's technical and human resources
37.

Durkheim defined social facts as:

A. ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that are collective and social in origin
B. the way scientists construct knowledge in a social context
C. data collected about social phenomena that are proven to be correct
D. ideas and theories that have no basis in the external, physical world
Answer» A. ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that are collective and social in origin
38.

Weber said that all knowledge is 'value-relevant' because:

A. sociologists like to put a value on different theories
B. knowledge refers to people and their values
C. theorists interpret the world in terms of their own values
D. attempts to provide knowledge about the world are always valuable
Answer» C. theorists interpret the world in terms of their own values
39.

The four ideal types of social action that Weber identified were as follows: instrumentally-rational, value-rational, traditional, and...

A. affectual
B. affective
C. effective
D. infected
Answer» A. affectual
40.

Structural-Functionalists describe society as:

A. a complex network of interaction at a micro-level
B. a source of conflict, inequality, and alienation
C. an unstable structure of social relations
D. anormative framework of roles and institutions
Answer» D. anormative framework of roles and institutions
41.

The pragmatist philosophy used in Symbolic Interactionist theory teaches that:

A. theory must be augmented by straightforward, plausible methods
B. we can find true, objective knowledge of the world through our senses
C. knowledge is produced in everyday, practical situations
D. the best social theory was developed in Prague
Answer» B. we can find true, objective knowledge of the world through our senses
42.

Dahrendorf, Rex, and Habermas focused their attention on:

A. social solidarity and cohesion
B. the interpretive understanding of action
C. women's experiences and gendered knowledge
D. power, domination, and conflict
Answer» D. power, domination, and conflict
43.

The term 'feminist standpoint' suggests:

A. taking a stand on the issues neglected by feminism
B. studying society from the perspective of women
C. the recognition of difference and diversity in women's lives
D. a tendency to ignore the gendered nature of knowledge
Answer» A. taking a stand on the issues neglected by feminism
44.

Post-modernist writers have argued that:

A. we live in a world of superficial, fragmented images
B. no theory is better than any other: 'anything goes'
C. society has changed and we need new kinds of theory
D. all of the above
Answer» A. we live in a world of superficial, fragmented images
45.

Conflict sociologists analyze society using the:

A. Macro analysis approach
B. Micro analysis approach
C. Interpretive approach
D. Statistical approach
Answer» A. Macro analysis approach
46.

Conflict sociologists view society as:

A. Stable
B. Chaotic
C. Evolutionary
D. Symbolic
Answer» B. Chaotic
47.

According to the conflict theory, conflict is created through:

A. Social construction of opposing realities
B. Social problems which create dysfunctions
C. Unreliable social networks
D. Large groups competing over power
Answer» D. Large groups competing over power
48.

Karl Marx viewed ____________ as the source of social inequality:

A. Communism
B. Socialism
C. Capitalism
D. Feudalism
Answer» C. Capitalism
49.

When Karl Marx defined the proletariat and the bourgeoisie classes as:

A. Workers and the owners in a capitalist society
B. Socialists and feudalists in different time periods
C. Robots and factory workers in the Industrial Revolution
D. Rural and urban landholders
Answer» A. Workers and the owners in a capitalist society
50.

Michelle owns a regional manufacturing company. She has a warehouse, nine trucks, and employs 50 people. What are the warehouses and trucks examples of?

A. Means of production
B. Social control
C. Surplus value
D. Bourgeoisie status
Answer» A. Means of production
51.

The main motive of the bourgeoisie class according to Karl Marx:

A. Increase wages
B. Profit
C. False Consciousness
D. Class Consciousness
Answer» B. Profit
52.

The belief that capitalism is good for the proletariat class is an example of:

A. Class Consciousness
B. Classless Society
C. Class Conflict
D. False Consciousness
Answer» D. False Consciousness
53.

Dominant and minority groups are distinguished by:

A. Features related to their characteristics
B. Ability to organize themselves effectively
C. Access to power
D. Cultural definitions
Answer» C. Access to power
54.

Conflict sociologists view social change as:

A. Exchange of power between groups
B. Movement from class conflict to classless society
C. Nonexistent since power is always used to oppress
D. Stable and orderly process
Answer» A. Exchange of power between groups
55.

Which of the following was Michel Foucault' primary work.

A. Language is Sermonic
B. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
C. Archaeology of Knowledge
D. Rhetoric of Motives.
Answer» C. Archaeology of Knowledge
56.

From which period is Michel Foucault?

A. Classical
B. Medieval
C. Enlightenment
D. Contemporary
Answer» D. Contemporary
57.

Totalitarian regimes typically depend...

A. on the voluntary support of all of their citizens.
B. entirely on brute force.
C. entirely on brainwashing techniques.
D. on a mixture of power and authority, with more of the former than the latter.
Answer» D. on a mixture of power and authority, with more of the former than the latter.
58.

Most conservatives believe that...

A. political authority always reflects economic power.
B. only people with hereditary titles can exercise authority.
C. whatever its origin, authority is necessary because people need to be led and protect
Answer» C. whatever its origin, authority is necessary because people need to be led and protect
59.

Michel Foucault argued that...

A. harsh punishments are necessary to make people obey the law.
B. if people were more conscious of their rights they could eradicate power inequalities forever.
C. power is a quality reserved for government institutions.
D. power is inherent in all social relations, and is, therefore, impossible to eradicate even though its abuses should always be attacked.
Answer» D. power is inherent in all social relations, and is, therefore, impossible to eradicate even though its abuses should always be attacked.
60.

On Max Weber's classification, modern governments are increasingly dependent on...

A. the Divine Right of rulers.
B. skilful manipulation of the ruled.
C. the recognized authority of certain offices of state.
D. the personal charisma of rulers.
Answer» C. the recognized authority of certain offices of state.
61.

What is Stephen Lukes's classic definition of power?

A. A exercises power over B when A makes B do something she wouldn't otherwise have done.
B. A exercises power over B when she gives B a series of unambiguous orders.
C. A exercises power over B when A affects B in a manner contrary to B's interests.
D. A exercises power over B when A provides B with compelling reasons to act in accordance with majority opinion.
Answer» C. A exercises power over B when A affects B in a manner contrary to B's interests.
62.

According to Bachrach and Baratz, 'non-decision making' is...

A. the inability of politicians to make up their minds.
B. the tendency of members of the public to change their minds on key policy issues.
C. a refusal of politicians to compromise in the national interest.
D. the ability of powerful groups to prevent certain issues from being discussed
Answer» D. the ability of powerful groups to prevent certain issues from being discussed
63.

It is problematic to argue that people can be made to act against their real interests because...

A. 'real' interests are subjective and open to endless contestation.
B. ordinary people are too irrational to realize where their real interests lie.
C. ordinary people are always the best judges of their real interests.
D. politicians are too out of touch to recognize the 'real interests' of ordinary people.
Answer» A. 'real' interests are subjective and open to endless contestation.
64.

The Marxist critique of power in capitalist societies...

A. assumes that powerful economic interests enjoy dominance in decision-making.
B. argues that ordinary people are taught to think that the interests of powerful economic groups are identical to their own self-interest.
C. focuses on the outcomes of decisions rather than the way in which they are made.
D. all of the above.
Answer» D. all of the above.
65.

Typically, Marxist structuralists argue that...

A. individuals are capable of shaping their own destinies.
B. capitalists are inherently immoral.
C. even well-intentioned capitalists are forced by the logic of the system to exploit their workers.
D. all of the above are true.
Answer» C. even well-intentioned capitalists are forced by the logic of the system to exploit their workers.
66.

Which one of the following is not an example of formal control?

A. Custom
B. Military Force
C. Act
D. Law
Answer» A. Custom
67.

Who propounded the “Theory of Circulation of Elites”?

A. Spengler
B. Toynbee
C. Pareto
D. Sorokin
Answer» C. Pareto
68.

Who wrote the book ‘The Death of the Family’?

A. Edmund Leach
B. T. Parsons
C. David Cooper
D. W. J. Goode
Answer» C. David Cooper
69.

From whose work the phrase “Pygmalion Effect” has been adopted?

A. George Bernard Shaw
B. William Shakespeare
C. John Keats
D. J. Bernard
Answer» A. George Bernard Shaw
70.

Who classified kinship terms into ‘Classificatory’ and ‘Descriptive’?

A. G.P. Murdock
B. A.R. Brown
C. B. Malinowski
D. L.H. Morgan
Answer» D. L.H. Morgan
71.

Who distinguished between instinct for workmanship and the drive for profit?

A. P. Sorokin
B. Adam Smith
C. Karl Marx
D. T. Veblen
Answer» D. T. Veblen
72.

The etymological meaning of Sociology is

A. Scientific study
B. The Science of Society
C. Social Science
D. None of these
Answer» B. The Science of Society
73.

Which perspective in Sociology deals with ‘The Social System’?

A. The Interactionist
B. The Conflict
C. The Functional
D. Theoretical
Answer» B. The Conflict
74.

Which one of the following is not a feature of society?

A. Interdependence
B. Co-operation and Conflict
C. Likeness and differences
D. A specific aim
Answer» D. A specific aim
75.

“Community is the smallest territorial group that can embrace all aspects of social life”, who gave this definition?

A. E. S. Bogardus
B. Davis Kingsley
C. MacIver and Pag
D. Ogburn and Nimkoff
Answer» B. Davis Kingsley
76.

“Culture is the man-made part of the environment”, who said this?

A. Robert Bierstedt
B. E.A. Hoebel
C. M.J. Herskovits
D. B. Malinowski
Answer» C. M.J. Herskovits
77.

Which type of social change always refers to “human happiness”?

A. Development
B. Progress
C. Westernization
D. Evolution
Answer» B. Progress
78.

Which one of the following is an example of achieved status?

A. Caste
B. Clan
C. Clas
D. Fratery
Answer» C. Clas
79.

Who considers “all identities, presences, predictions, etc. depend for their existence on something outside themselves”?

A. J. Habermas
B. Anthony Giddens
C. M. Foucault
D. J. Derrida
Answer» D. J. Derrida
80.

Who has written ‘presentation of self’ and given the concept of ‘enactment of roles’?

A. Erving Goffman
B. L. Althusser
C. J. Alexander
D. C.H. Cooley
Answer» A. Erving Goffman
81.

Who has written the book “Theoretical Logic in Sociology”?

A. A. Giddens
B. J. Alexander
C. C.H. Page
D. Francis Abraham
Answer» D. Francis Abraham
82.

Who is said to be the most ‘Marxist exponent of structuralism’?

A. C. Levi-Strauss
B. L. Althusser
C. J. Derrida
D. A. Giddens
Answer» B. L. Althusser
83.

Who has written the book “new Rules of Sociological Methods”?

A. Herbert Blumer
B. E. Durkheim
C. W.J. Goode
D. Anthony Giddens
Answer» A. Herbert Blumer
84.

Who’s theory is considered as ‘deconstructionism’?

A. M. Foucault
B. J. Derrida
C. H.G. Wells
D. C. W. Mills
Answer» D. C. W. Mills
85.

Which one of the following is a quantitative method of social research?

A. Oral History
B. Geneology
C. Questionnaire
D. Life History
Answer» B. Geneology
86.

Berelson’s (1954) method is used in

A. Sociometry
B. Content Analysis
C. ‘T’ Test
D. Interview
Answer» C. ‘T’ Test
87.

Who among the following Sociologists is concerned with ‘Action Frame of Reference’?

A. T.
B. Bottomore (b) G. Simmel
C. L. T. Hobhouse
D. T. Parsons
Answer» B. Bottomore (b) G. Simmel
88.

Who said, “Sociologists are the priest of modern society”?

A. Emile Durkheim
B. Max Weber
C. Auguste Comte
D. None of the above
Answer» D. None of the above
89.

“Sociology is the study of the forms of social relation.” Who said this?

A. E. Durkheim
B. G. Simmel
C. MacIver and Page
D. Ginsberg
Answer» A. E. Durkheim
90.

According to Tonnies neighbourhood is a :

A. Community
B. Primary Group
C. Social Group
D. Secondary Group
Answer» B. Primary Group
91.

The state is an example of which of the following?

A. Primary group
B. Community
C. Association
D. Government
Answer» A. Primary group
92.

Every man in society occupies a number of status, different status associated with single person are known as :

A. status inconsistency
B. status sequences
C. status set
D. status succession
Answer» C. status set
93.

Who has coined the terms status, status set, and status sequence?

A. R. Linton
B. K. Davis
C. MacIver & Page
D. R.K. Merton
Answer» C. MacIver & Page
94.

Name one American sociologist, who is known as the founder of behavioral sociology and exchange theory.

A. T.Parsons
B. B.F.Skinner
C. H. Blumer
D. G. C. Homans
Answer» D. G. C. Homans
95.

What is the materialist conception of history?

A. Processes of historical change are a reflection of the economic development of a society.
B. Processes of economic change are based in history.
C. Processes of historical change are based in class war.
D. None of the options given are correct.
Answer» A. Processes of historical change are a reflection of the economic development of a society.
96.

What is the relationship between base and superstructure?

A. The change in the economic base of a society leads to the change in superstructure.
B. The change in superstructure leads to the change in the economic base of a society.
C. No relation .
D. None of the options given are correct.
Answer» A. The change in the economic base of a society leads to the change in superstructure.
97.

ImmanuelWallerstein argues:

A. There are two types of world systems: world-empires and world-economies.
B. The modern world system is a world-economy.
C. The world system has a core, semi-periphery, and periphery.
D. All of the options given are correct.
Answer» D. All of the options given are correct.
98.

What is Antonio Gramsci's view of power?

A. It comes out of a barrel of a gun.
B. It is a mixture of coercion and consent.
C. It is purely economic.
D. All of the options given are correct.
Answer» B. It is a mixture of coercion and consent.
99.

Gramsci shifted the focus of Marxist analysis through which of the following ideas?

A. Hegemony is a product of the lack of class conflict.
B. That consent for a particular social and political system was produced and reproduced through the operation of hegemony.
C. All the options arecorrect
D. None of the options given are correct.
Answer» B. That consent for a particular social and political system was produced and reproduced through the operation of hegemony.
100.

According to critical theorists, what is 'emancipation'?

A. Reconciliation with power.
B. Humanity gaining power over nature.
C. Reconciliation with nature.
D. None of the options given are correct.
Answer» C. Reconciliation with nature.
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