# 100+ Structural Design and Drawing Solved MCQs

30
19.2k
1.

## Originally, Rankine’s theory of lateral earth pressure can be applied to only

A. cohesion less soil
B. cohesive soil
C. fine grained soil
D. coarse grained soil
Explanation: as originally proposed,
2.

## Rankine’s theory of lateral pressure was extended to other soil by

A. resal and bell
B. mohr
C. none of the mentioned
D. all of the mentioned
Explanation: the theory of lateral pressure was extended to cohesive, stratified, partially immersed and submerged soil was by resal in 1910 and by bell in 1915.
3.

## Based on the assumptions of Rankine’s theory, the soil mass is

A. stratified
B. submerged
C. homogeneous
D. all of the mentioned
Explanation: according to the assumption of rankine’s theory, the soil mass is semi- infinite, homogeneous, dry and cohesion less.
4.

## Which of the following cases for cohesion less backfill in Rankine’s theory is considered?

A. submerged backfill
B. moist backfill with no surcharge
C. backfill with sloping surface
D. all of the mentioned
Answer» D. all of the mentioned
Explanation: in rankine’s theory the following cases of cohesionless backfill are considered
5.

## The factor that is responsible for inclination of resultant pressure to the retaining wall is

A. frictional force
B. surcharge
C. earth pressure
D. weight of the wall
Explanation: the retaining walls are constructed of masonry or concrete, due to this the frictional force develops. the existence of the friction makes the resultant pressure inclined to the wall at an angle that approaches the frictional angle between the soil and the wall.
6.

## If the sand filled behind the retaining wall with saturated water with water, then the possible lateral pressure is

A. lateral pressure due to submerged weight and lateral pressure due to water
B. lateral pressure due to retaining wall
C. none of the mentioned
D. all of the mentioned
Answer» A. lateral pressure due to submerged weight and lateral pressure due to water
Explanation: the lateral pressure is made up of two components for wetted soil in back of the retaining wall:
7.

## The earth pressure at rest exerted on a retaining structure can be calculated using

A. theory of plasticity
B. theory of elasticity
C. mohr’s theory of rupture
D. none of the mentioned
Explanation: the earth pressure at rest, exerted on the back of the rigid, unyielding retaining structure, can be calculated using theory of elasticity.
8.

## The expression for K0 as given by Jacky is

A. k0 = 1 – sin φ
B. k0 = sin φ
C. k0 = 1 – cos φ
D. k0 = 1 + sin φ
Answer» A. k0 = 1 – sin φ
Explanation: k0 can be calculated by using the following equation as computed by jacky in 1944:
9.

## What will be the coefficient of earth pressure at rest for a rigid retaining wall, If the backfill consists of cohesion less soil having φ = 26°?

A. 0.1295
B. 0.6552
C. 0.5616
D. 0.7383
Explanation: coefficient of earth pressure, k0 can be calculated using jacky’s formula: given: φ = 26°
10.

## A force 2P is acting on the double transverse fillet weld. Leg of weld is h and length l. Determine the shear stress in a plane inclined at θ with horizontal.

A. psinθ(sinθ+cosθ)/hl
B. p(sinθ+cosθ)/hl
C. pcosθ(sinθ+cosθ)/hl
D. none of the listed
Explanation: f=psinθ and width=h/(sinθ+cosθ).
11.

## Maximum shear stress in transverse fillet weld of leg h and length l is

A. p/hl
B. 1.21p/hl
C. p/1.21hl
D. none of the listed
Explanation: τ= psinθ(sinθ+cosθ)/hl, by maximising it θ=67.5’ and hence find corresponding τ.
12.

## Hollow saddle key is superior to flat saddle key as far as power transmitting capability is concerned.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: the resistance to slip in case of
13.

## Saddle key is more suitable than sunk key for heavy duty applications.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: in sunk key, relative motion is also prevented by shear resistance of sunk key and hence sunk key is recommended.
14.

## The main advantage of sunk key is that it is a            drive.

A. positive
B. negative
C. neutral
D. none of the listed
Explanation: sunk key is a positive drive and no slip occurs.
15.

## Woodruff key permits            movement b/w shaft and the hub.

A. axial
C. eccentric
D. none of the listed
Explanation: woodruff key is a sunk key and doesn’t permit axial moment.
16.

## Determine the length of kennedy key required to transmit 1200N-m and allowable shear in the key is 40N/mm². The diameter of shaft and width of key can be taken as 40mm and 10mm respectively.

A. 49mm
B. 36mm
C. 46mm
D. 53mm
Explanation: l=m/[dbτ√2].
17.

## Splines are keys.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: splines are keys made with shafts.
18.

## The prestressed concrete slab systems are ideally suited for

A. roofs
B. slabs
C. beam
D. column
Explanation: prestressed concrete slabs systems are ideally suited for floor and roof construction of industrial buildings where the live loads to base supported are of a higher order and the uninterrupted floor space is desirable for which reason longer span between the supporting elements are required.
19.

## The precast prestressed hollow core slabs, with or without topping is an important

A. floor panels
B. tendons
C. wall coatings
D. reinforcements
Explanation: prestressed pretensioned cored slabs with differ types of cavities are widely used as floor panels of civil and industrial buildings in erstwhile u.s.s.r graduck
20.

## One way slabs may be supported across the entire width of the slab by means of

A. columns
B. piers
C. ridges
D. footings
Explanation: one way slabs may be
21.

## The simple or continuous slabs are analyzed for

A. design foundation
B. design reinforcement
C. design moments
D. design slab
Explanation: the simple or continuous slabs are analyzed for design moments by considering a unit width of the slab and the prestressing force and the eccentricity of the cable required at prominent sections to resist the dead and live load moments are determined and the spacing of the cables or wires fixed based on the availability of type of tendon.
22.

## The design of a two-way-slab supported on all four sides involves the computation of

A. moments
B. cross sections
C. bending moment
D. deformations
Explanation: the design of a two way slab supported on all four sides involves the computation of bending moment in the principal directions of the slab and the slab may be supported on masonry walls or beams and mayor may not be continuous over the supports and transverse loads are resisted by the development of two way slab action,
23.

## A simple prestressed flat slab is generally supported by a network of

A. beams
B. columns
C. spans
D. deflections
Explanation: a simple prestressed flat slab is generally supported by a network of columns without beams and prestressed in two perpendicular directions and the design of typical simple flat slab involves the analysis of moments in the two principal directions so that cables may be arranged to resist these moments and the slab is analyzed as one way slab and the total number of cables required to resist the moments in each of two principal directions are determined.
24.

## The proportioning of tendons in design of prestressed concrete simple flat slab between the column and middle strips may be based on

A. moments
B. codes
C. deflections
Explanation: the column strips being stiffer than the middle strips, a greater percentage of the tendons are housed in the column strips and the proportioning of the tendons between the column and middle strips may be based on the provisions of codes such as is:456 and bs:8110, where column strips share a higher proportion of total moment.
25.

## The design principles of continuous flat slab floors are similar to

A. one way slab
B. two way slab
C. continuous
D. deformed
Explanation: the design of continuous flat slab floors are similar to those of two way reinforced concrete slabs and a strip of slab of unit width continuous over supports is analyzed as continuous beam and its prestressing results in secondary moments.
26.

## What will be the design load for bridges and culverts on National Highway?

Explanation: irc a body of professional highway engineers provides the following services:
27.

## Hard, rough and durable granite stone ballast                    gauge, shall be used.

A. 100 mm
B. 20 mm
C. 1mm
D. 60mm
Explanation: ballast should not absorb water and should not be affected by weather action and shall be clean and free from dust, dirt, etc. ballast should be stacked 30 cm high on the levelled side-berm of the road in a continuous stack along the road having the section as required per metre length of the road.
28.

## These are important roads within a district connecting areas of production with markets and connecting them with the State Highways & National Highways and are maintained by the State PWD?

A. state highway
B. national highway
Explanation: district roads are sub-classified into – major district roads and other district roads. as per the classification of roads broadly the mdrs are to have a minimum
29.

## What will be the maximum superrelevation in hills on Major District roads?

A. 4 in 30
B. 1 in 10
C. 1 in 4
D. 1 in 60
Explanation: to counter-act the effect of centrifugal force and reduce the tendency of vehicle to overturn and to skid laterally outwards, pavement outer edge is raised with respect to inner edge. thus, providing a transverse slope is known as super elevation. it is represented by “ e ”.
30.

## What will be the ruling gradient in hills on “Other district roads”?

A. 1 in 20
B. 1 in 5
C. 1 in 10
D. 1 in 3
Explanation: ruling gradient (plural ruling gradients) (rail transport) the steepest uphill gradient in one direction on a section of railway line, which determines the load that can be pulled by one locomotive over that
31.

## What will be the minimum visibility at vertical curves on National Highway?

A. 130 m
B. 200 m
C. 20 m
D. 100 m
Explanation: the length of a crest vertical curve is governed by visibility considerations. the minimum length is based on the stopping sight distance; the maximum length is based on the passing sight distance, and overtaking is allowed throughout its length. the object of the present paper is theoretical determination of the zone of overtaking visibility in a curve designed on a below-maximum basis. the analysis covers 2 cases: (a) overtaking vehicle inside oncoming vehicle outside the curve and (b) both vehicles outside the curve. the corresponding curve geometries were also considered.
32.

## What will be the width of metalled surface single lane on Major District road?

A. 1.70 m
B. 3.70 m
C. 0.70 m
D. 10 m
Explanation: a single carriageway or undivided highway is a road with one, two or more lanes arranged within a single carriageway with no central reservation to separate opposing flows of traffic.
33.

## Subgrade shall be well consolidated and compacted each with a camber of 1 in 60.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: subgrades are commonly compacted before the construction of a road, pavement or railway track, and are sometimes stabilized by the addition of asphalt, lime, portland cement or other modifiers. the subgrade is the foundation of the pavement structure, on which the subbase is laid.
34.

## 8 cm.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: inter coat shall be of stone ballast, or over burnt brick ballast of 12cm thick layer and consolidated and compacted by road roller to 8 cm.
35.

## First coat of bituminous painting shall be with stone ballast no.3 and stone grit of 20 mm gauge at 220 kg of asphalt and 1.35 cu m of stone grit per 100 sq. m.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: first coat of bituminous painting shall be with asphalt or road tar no.3 and stone grit of 20 mm gauge at 220 kg of asphalt and 1.35 cu m of stone grit per 100 sq. m.
36.

## If subgrade is soft or weak, a thick sub- base of cheap and inferior materials well compacted should be used.

A. false
B. true
Explanation: in transport engineering, subgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road, pavement or railway (us: railroad) track. it is also called formation level. the term can also refer to imported material that has been used to build an embankment.
37.

## Laying and consolidation shall be done during dry season.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: laying and consolidation shall be done during early rainy season, so that sufficient water is available for consolidation, and during the later part of the rains the ballast gets fully compacted.
38.

## Stone grits used for 1st coat and 2nd surface painting may be precoated in advance with advance with bitumen.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: precoating prevents separation and disintegration of grits and improves the life of the road. for precoating stone grits 12kg to 16 kg of asphalt or road tar per cu m of grit may be used.
39.

## As soon as sufficient length of premix has been laid, rolling should be started with 2 to 4 tonne roller.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: as soon as sufficient length of
40.

## Which authority is responsible for national highway?

A. local governments and municipalities
B. panchayats, jry and pmgsy
C. public works department of state/union territory
D. ministry of road transport and highways
Explanation: the ministry of road transport and highways is a ministry of the government of india, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules, regulations and laws relating to road transport, and transport research, in order to increase the mobility and efficiency of the road transport system in india. road transport is a critical infrastructure for economic development of the country. it influences the pace, structure and pattern of development. in india, roads are used to transport over 60% of the total goods and 85% of passenger traffic.
41.

## A structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side is called as

A. drainage
B. bridges
C. tunnel
D. culverts
Explanation: culverts are commonly used both as cross-drains for ditch relief and to pass water under a road at natural drainage and stream crossings. a culvert may be a bridge-like structure designed to allow vehicle or pedestrian traffic to cross over the waterway while allowing adequate passage for the water.
42.

## A structure that carries water above land is known as an

A. aqueduct
B. aquedant
C. over surface
D. outland
Explanation: bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines. the term aqueduct may also be used to refer to the entire watercourse, as well as the bridge.
43.

## If the span of crossing is greater than 12 feet (3.7 m), the structure is termed as bridge and otherwise is culvert.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: a bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. there are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations.
44.

## Culverts cannot be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete.

A. true
B. false
C. topic 2.3 rc solid slab bridge - steel foot-over bridgedesign and drawing.
Explanation: culverts can be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete (reinforced or non- reinforced), galvanized steel, aluminium, or plastic, typically high-density polyethylene. two or more materials may be combined to form composite structures. for example,
45.

## Construction or installation at a culvert site generally results in disturbance of the site soil.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: construction or installation at a culvert site generally results in disturbance of the site soil, stream banks, or streambed, and can result in the occurrence of unwanted problems such as scour holes or slumping of banks adjacent to the culvert structure.
46.

## Box culverts can be defined as a passage for water over a natural ground having a deck slab over it as path way for vehicles.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: slab culvert- a passage for water over a natural ground having a deck slab over it as path way for vehicles.
47.

## An                    culvert is normally a low profile culvert. It allows them to be installed without disturbing the causeway as it will span over the entire drainage width.

A. box
B. rectangle
C. arch
D. circular
Explanation: they are normally made of metal, stone masonry or rcc. they are installed easily, and you don’t need to use expensive water diversion structures to install it. common shapes include semicircular arch, elliptical arch, and concrete box culverts.
48.

## Prestressed concrete although it is water tight, it is not

A. gas tight
B. liquid tight
C. vapour tight
D. material tight
Explanation: tanks have been built for storing liquid oxygen at 230 degrees with capacities up to one million liters and prestressed concrete, although water tight, it is not gas tight were vapours under pressure are to be stored and in such cases, a thin membrane linear of steel provides rigidity and increases the steel tensile capacity of the pretressed concrete.
49.

## In the case of large tanks, the base slabs is subdivided by

A. water
B. joints
C. scale
D. lines
Explanation: in the case of large tanks, the bars slab is subdivided by joints which are sealed by water stops and the floor slabs are cast in panels and according to the british standard the maximum length of side of such panels should not exceed 7.5m for reinforcement slabs and 6m for nominal slabs and they may be formed out of 50 to 80mm thick gunite reinforced with 0.5 percent of steel distributed in each of the principal directions.
50.

## The nominal reinforcement provided for floor slabs stipulated by Indian standard code is not less than?

A. 0.5
B. 0.7
C. 0.15
D. 0.8
Explanation: the indian standard code stipulates the floor slabs of tanks resting on the ground should be provided with a nominal reinforcement of not less than 0.15 percent and the floor slabs should be cast in panels of area not more than 4.5m2 with contraction or expansion joints and these slabs are to be cast over a layer of concrete not less than 75mm thick with a sliding layer of bitumen paper
51.

## When a sliding joint is made what is interposed at the junction of wall and base?

A. rubber
B. timber
C. plastic
D. soil
Explanation: a sliding joint is made by interposing rubber or neoprene pads at the junction of the wall and the base and the preload engineering company has developed this type of sliding base in which a vertical water stop is inserted between two rubber strips and in the present state of art, single neoprene pads have also used and the main function of these pads is to allow for free horizontal movement of the wall relative to the base by shear deformation of the rubber joint, which does not exceed a critical value of 30 degrees.
52.

## In the fixed base joint the junction is between the tank wall and

A. slab
B. footing
C. beams
D. columns
Explanation: in fixed base joint the junction is between the tank wall and footing is the most vulnerable location as far as leakage is
53.

## Calculate circumferential prestress of a cylindrical prestressed concrete water tank given that the thickness is 12mm, loss ratio is 0.75, the maximum stress under working pressure is 1n/mm2(Nd value is 720)?

A. 9.4n/mm2
B. 5.6n/mm2
C. 11.2n/mm2
D. 15.2n/mm2
Explanation: nd = 720, fmin.w = 1, ɳ = 0.75, t
54.

## wires of 8mm diameter stressed to 1200n/mm2 are to be used for vertical prestressing?

A. 15
B. 12
C. 8
D. 4
Explanation: 5mm diameter wires stress is 1000n/mm2, 12 wires of 8mm diameter are stressed to 1200n/mm2, fc = (12x1000x200)/(1000) = 2400kn.
55.

## Calculate the spacing of 5mm wires having a loss ratio of 0.075, compressive stress is 10.75n/mm2, 5mm diameter wires stress is 1000n/mm2, 12 wires of 8mm diameter are stressed to 1200n/mm2(Nd = 840n/mm2)?

A. 15.4mm
B. 11.6mm
C. 12.4mm
D. 18.5mm
Explanation: ɳ = 0.075, t = 120mm, internal diameter is 30×103, nd = 840
56.

## Calculate the maximum vertical moment due to prestress if given self weight moment is 16.5kn/m, thickness is 0.115m and loss ratio is 0.0075?

A. 15.4
B. 21.5
C. 25.4
D. 2.6
Explanation: mw = 16.5kn/m, t = 0.115, ɳ = 0.075
57.

## Find vertical prestressing force if characteristic strength is 8.2, wires are stressed at 1000n/mm2, diameter is 150mm?

A. 1500kn
B. 1230kn
C. 4567kn
D. 8967kn
Explanation: fc = 8.2, stress = 1000, diameter
58.

## Prestressed concrete tanks have been widely used for the storage of

A. gas
B. air
C. fluids
D. water
Explanation: prestressed concrete tanks have been widely used for storage of fluids, such as water, oil, gas, sewage, granular materials like cement, process liquids and chemicals, slurries and more recently cryogens water storage tanks of large capacity are invariably made of prestressed concrete recent applications include special forms of prestressed concrete tanks, which are triaxially prestressed and serve as containment vessels and biological shields for nuclear reactors.
59.

## The metal linear concept in prestressed tanks has proved to be success in case of

A. air tanks
B. water tanks
C. fluid tanks
D. vapour tanks
Explanation: the metal linear concept has proved so successful that it is being increasingly used in america, even for large water tanks and in the case of sanitary structures like sludge digestion tanks, spherical shapes are preferred and for practical reasons, the tank is made up of a top
60.

## Calculate minimum wall thickness given a cylindrical prestressed water tank of internal diameter 30m over a depth of 7.5m and the permissible compressive stress at transfer is 13n/mm2 and the maximum compressive stress under working pressure is 1n/mm2 and the loss ratio is 0.75?

A. 43.8
B. 82.3
C. 64.5
D. 90.4
Explanation: d = 30m, h = 7.5m, nd = 720n/mm, ɳ = 0.75, fct = 13n/mm2, pressure is 1n/mm2
61.

## Calculate vertical prestressing force if wires of 5mm diameter with an initial stress of 1000n/mm2 are available for circumferential winding and Freyssinet cables made up of 12 wires of 8mm diameter stressed to 1200n/mm2 are to be used for vertical prestressing?

A. 15
B. 12
C. 8
D. 4
Explanation: 5mm diameter wires stress is 1000n/mm2, 12 wires of 8mm diameter are stressed to 1200n/mm2, fc = (12x1000x200)/(1000) = 2400kn.
62.

## What is beam?

A. structural member subjected to transverse loads
B. structural member subjected to axial loads only
C. structural member subjected to seismic loads only
D. structural member subjected to transverse loads only
Explanation: beam is a structural member subjected to transverse loads that is loads perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. the mode of deflection of beam is primarily by bending.
63.

## Structural members subjected to bending and large axial compressive loads are known as

A. strut
B. purlin
C. beam-column
D. lintel
Explanation: structural members subjected to bending accompanied by large axial compressive loads at the same time are known as beam-column. a beam-column differs from column only by presence of eccentricity of load application, end moment, transverse load.
64.

## Members used to carry wall loads over wall openings are called

A. purlin
B. rafter
C. girder
D. lintels
Explanation: lintels are beam members used to carry wall loads over wall openings for doors, windows, etc.
65.

## Load transfer by a beam is primarily by

A. bending only
B. shear only
C. bending and shear
D. neither bending nor shear
Explanation: the load transfer by beam is primarily by bending and shear. the mode of deflection of beam is primarily by bending.
66.

## What are spandrels?

A. exterior beams at floor level of buildings
B. interior beams at floor level of buildings
C. exterior columns
D. interior columns
Answer» A. exterior beams at floor level of buildings
Explanation: spandrels are exterior beams at floor level of buildings, which carry part of floor load and exterior wall.
67.

## Members used in bridges parallel to traffic are called

A. spandrel
B. stringers
C. purlin
D. joist
Explanation: stringers are members used in bridges parallel to traffic to carry the deck slab. they will be connected by transverse floor beams.
68.

## Which of the following statement is correct?

A. beams are termed as fixed beams when end condition do not carry end moments
B. beams are termed as simply supported beams when ends are rigidly connected to other members
C. beams are termed as fixed beams when ends are rigidly connected to other members
D. beams are termed as continuous beams when they do not extend across more than two support
Answer» C. beams are termed as fixed beams when ends are rigidly connected to other members
Explanation: beams may be termed as simply supported beams when end condition do not carry any end moments from any continuity developed by connection. a beam is called continuous beam when it extends continuously across more than two supports. a fixed beam has its ends rigidly connected to other members, so that moments can be carried across the connection.
69.

## Complex stresses may occur when

A. loads are inclined to principal axes
B. loads are along principal axes
C. symmetrical section are used
D. small values of shear and bending moment occur at section
Explanation: complex stresses may arise when loads are inclined to principal axes, when unsymmetrical sections are used or when large values of shear and bending moment occur at section.
70.

## Simple bending takes place if

C. loading plane coincides with one of the principal planes of doubly symmetric section
D. loading plane do not coincide with one of the principal planes of doubly symmetric section
Explanation: simple bending takes place if loading plane coincides with one of the principal planes of doubly symmetric section such as i-section or in case of singly symmetric open section such as channel section, the loading passes through shear centre and is parallel to the principal plane. unsymmetrical bending occurs if loading does not pass through shear centre.
71.

## Which of the following buckling does not occur in beam?

A. lateral buckling of whole beam
B. local buckling of web
C. local buckling of flanges
D. longitudinal buckling of web
Answer» B. local buckling of web
Explanation: buckling may take place in many ways : (i) lateral buckling of whole beam between supports, (ii) local buckling of flanges, (iii) longitudinal buckling of web and buckling in depth direction under concentrated loads.
72.

## The diameter of longitudinal bars of a column should never be less than?

A. 12 mm
B. 6 mm
C. 10 mm
D. 8 mm
Explanation: minimum diameter of longitudinal bar in rcc column shall not be less than 12mm (is456:2000, cl 26.5.3.1 d). indian standards specify 12mm as the least diameter of a vertical bar and 5mm as the least diameter of lateral bar or stirrup.
73.

## The number of treads in a flight is equal to

A. risers in the flight
B. risers plus one
C. risers minus one
D. risers plus three
Explanation: it is often not simply the sum of the individual tread lengths due to the nosing overlapping between treads. if there are n steps, the total run equals n-1 times the going: the tread of the last step is part of a landing and is not counted.
74.

## A foundation rests on

A. base of the foundation
B. foundation soil
Explanation: a foundation (or, more commonly, base) is the element of an architectural structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground. foundations are generally considered either shallow or deep. foundation engineering is the application of soil mechanics and rock mechanics (geotechnical engineering) in the design of foundation elements of structures.
75.

## For initial estimate for a beam design, the width is assumed?

A. 1/10th of span
B. 1/30th of span
C. 1/15th of span
D. 1/5th of span
Explanation: design codes prescribe beam width limitations to minimise the shear lag effect on the formation of full-width plastic hinges and achieving the expected capacity. however, owing to insufficient experimental and analytical studies, empirical design formulas for the beam width limitation, with
76.

## High strength concrete is used in prestressed member?

A. to ovecome bursting stresses at the ends
B. to provide high bond stresses
C. to overcome cracks due to shrinkage
D. to overcome bursting stresses, provide high bond stresses and overcome cracks
Answer» D. to overcome bursting stresses, provide high bond stresses and overcome cracks
Explanation: the primary difference between high-strength concrete and normal- strength concrete relates to the compressive strength that refers to the maximum resistance of a concrete sample to applied pressure.
77.

## The advantage of reinforced concrete is due to

A. monolithic character
B. moulding in any desired shape
C. fire-resisting and durability
D. monolithic character, moulding any shape and fire-resisting
Answer» D. monolithic character, moulding any shape and fire-resisting
Explanation: reinforced concrete (rc) is a composite material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. the reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets.
78.

## Cracking of the concrete section is nearly impossible to prevent.

A. true
B. false
Explanation: however, the size and location of cracks can be limited and controlled by appropriate reinforcement, control joints, curing methodology and concrete mix design. cracking can allow moisture to penetrate and corrode the reinforcement. this is a serviceability failure in limit state design.
79.

## The architect is usually the lead designer on buildings, with a structural engineer employed as a sub-consultant.

A. false
B. true
Explanation: the degree to which each discipline actually leads the design depends heavily on the type of structure. many structures are structurally simple and led by architecture, such as multi-storey office buildings and housing, while other structures, such as tensile structures, shells and gridshells are heavily dependent on their form for their strength, and the engineer may have a more significant influence on the form, and hence much of the aesthetic, than the architect.
80.

## Why plate girder is preferred over truss girder?

A. plate girder requires costly maintenance
B. higher vertical clearance required for plate girder than truss girder
C. cost of fabrication of plate girder is high
D. cost of fabrication of truss girder is high
Answer» D. cost of fabrication of truss girder is high
Explanation: when load is heavier and span is also large, either plate girder or truss girder can be used. but, plate girder is preferred because of the disadvantages of truss girder. the disadvantages of truss girder are higher cost of fabrication and erection, problem of vibration and impact, requirements of higher vertical clearance and costly maintenance.
81.

## Bending resistance of plate girders can be increased by

A. decreasing distance between flanges
B. increasing distance between flanges
C. reducing distance between flanges to half
D. bending resistance cannot be increased
Answer» B. increasing distance between flanges
Explanation: plate girders are built-up flexural members. their bending resistance can be increased by increasing the distance between flanges. this also increases the shear resistance as web area increases.
82.

## Which of the following is economical if depth is limited and loads are too large?

A. rolled section beam
B. truss girder
C. welded box plate girder
D. bolted box plate girder
Answer» C. welded box plate girder
Explanation: when the loads and span are large, plate girder sections either with riveted/bolted connections or welded connections may be provided. the number of flange plates can be increased depending upon the moment to be resisted. if depth is limited and loads are too large, welded box plate girder is provided. a box girder with riveted/bolted connections can b e provided but it is too costly as compared to welded one. box girders have great resistance to lateral buckling.
83.

## An ideal bolted plate girder section consists of

A. flange angles and cover plates for both compression flange and tension flange
B. flange angles and cover plates for compression flange and only flange angle for tension flange
C. only flange angle for compression flange and flange angles and cover plates for tension flange
D. flange angles for both compression flange and tension flange
Answer» B. flange angles and cover plates for compression flange and only flange angle for tension flange
Explanation: an ideal bolted plate girder section consists of flange angles and cover plates for compression flange and only flange angle for tension flange. the various elements of riveted/bolted/welded plate girder are : web plate, flange angles with or without cover plates for riveted/bolted plate girder and only flange angles for welded plate girder, stiffeners – bearing, transverse and longitudinal, splices for web and flange.
84.

## The modes of failure of plate girder are

A. by yielding of compression flange only
B. by buckling of tension flange only
C. by yielding of tension flange and buckling of compression flange
D. by yielding of compression flange and buckling of tension flange
Answer» C. by yielding of tension flange and buckling of compression flange
Explanation: the limit states considered for plate girder are yielding of tension flange and buckling of compression flange. the compression flange buckling can take place in various ways, such as vertical buckling into the web or flange local buckling. flange buckling can also be caused due to lateral- torsional buckling.
85.

## At high shear locations in the girder web, principal plane will be              to longitudinal axis of member

A. inclined
B. parallel
C. perpendicular
D. coincides
Explanation: at high shear locations in the girder web, usually near supports and neutral axis, the principal planes will be inclined to longitudinal axis of the member. the principal stresses will be diagonal tension and diagonal compression along the principal planes.
86.

## Which of the following causes web buckling in plate girder?

A. diagonal tension
B. diagonal compression
C. diagonal tension and diagonal compression
D. neither diagonal tension nor diagonal compression
Explanation: the principal planes will be inclined to longitudinal axis of the member at high shear locations in the girder web. along the principal planes, the principal stresses will be diagonal tension and diagonal compression. diagonal tension does not cause
87.

## Which of the following statement is correct for reducing web buckling due to diagonal compression?

A. not providing web stiffeners to increase shear strength
B. providing web stiffeners to reduce shear strength
C. increasing depth-to-thickness ratio
D. reducing depth-to-thickness ratio
Explanation: diagonal compression causes web to buckle in the direction perpendicular to its action. this problem can be solved by any of the following ways : (i) reduce depth- to-thickness ratio of web such that problem is eliminated, (ii) provide web stiffeners to form panels that would enhance shear strength of web, (iii) provide web stiffeners to form panels that would develop tension field action to resist diagonal compression.
88.

## Which of the following is correct during tension field action?

A. web can resist diagonal compression
B. horizontal component of diagonal compression is supported by flanges
C. vertical component of diagonal compression is supported by flanges
D. vertical component of diagonal compression is supported by stiffeners
Answer» B. horizontal component of diagonal compression is supported by flanges
Explanation: as web begins to buckle , the web loses its ability to resist diagonal compression. the diagonal compression is transferred to transverse stiffeners and flanges. the vertical component of diagonal compression is supported by stiffeners and horizontal component is resisted by flanges. the web resists only diagonal tension and this behaviour of web is called tension field action.
89.

## Which of the statement is not true about intermediate stiffeners?

A. they reduce shear capacity of web
B. they improve shear capacity of web
C. they can be used to develop tension field action
D. their main purpose is to provide stiffness to the web
Answer» A. they reduce shear capacity of web
Explanation: intermediate stiffeners can be used to develop tension field action and improve shear capacity of web. the main purpose of these stiffeners is to provide stiffness to the web rather than to resist the applied loads. additional stiffeners called bearing stiffeners are provided at points of concentrated loads to protect the web from the direct compressive loads.
90.

## Which of the following is correct regarding gantry girders?

A. it is laterally supported except at the columns
B. it is subjected to impact load
C. it should not be analysed for unsymmetrical bending
D. it is not subjected to longitudinal load
Explanation: gantry girder are different from beams in buildings. it is generally laterally unsupported except at the columns. it is subjected to impact load. it must be analysed for unsymmetrical bending because of lateral thrust from the starting and stopping of the crab. it is subjected to longitudinal load due to starting and stopping of crane bridge itself. they are always simply supported.
91.

## Which of the following loads are not considered in the design of gantry girders?

Explanation: the loads considered in the design of gantry girders are vertical loads or gravity loads, longitudinal loads, lateral loads and impact loads. the vertical force is the reaction from crane girder, acting vertically downward. the longitudinal thrust is due to starting and stopping of crane acting in longitudinal direction. the lateral thrust is due to starting and stopping of the crab acting horizontally normal to the gantry girder.
92.

## The wheel load transferred from trolley to gantry girder is given by

A. w1 = [wt(lc+l1)]/(2lc)
B. w1 = [wt(lc-l1)](2lc)
C. w1 = [wt(lc-l1)]/(2lc)
D. w1 = [wt(lc+l1)]/( lc)
Explanation: since trolley moves on the crane girder along the span of truss, its weight is transferred to the crane wheels as the axle load and finally to gantry girder. the wheel load transferred from trolley to gantry girder is given by w1 = [wt(lc-l1)]/(2lc), where w1 is load of each wheel on gantry girder, wt is weight of trolley or crab car, lc is distance between gantry giders, l1 is distance between centre of gravity of trolley and gantry.
93.

## The maximum wheel load is obtained when

A. crane crab is farthest to gantry girder
B. crane crab is closest to gantry girder
C. crane crab is not attached
D. crane crab is at mid span
Answer» B. crane crab is closest to gantry girder
Explanation: the maximum wheel load is obtained when crane crab is closest to gantry girder. the crab in such position on the crane girder gives maximum reaction on the gantry girder. the vertical reaction of crane girder is transferred through its two wheels on to the gantry girder. therefore, the maximum wheel load is half of this reaction. this maximum wheel load is then increased for impact and used for design of gantry girder.
94.

## The bending moment due to dead load of girder is maximum at

A. one-third distance at span
B. two-third distance at span
C. end of span
D. centre of span
Explanation: the bending moment considered in the design of gantry girder are the bending moment due to maximum wheel loads (with impact) and the bending moment
95.

## The minimum recommended rise of trusses with Galvanised Iron sheets is

A. 1 in 12
B. 1 in 6
C. 1 in 10
D. 1 in 18
Explanation: the pitch of truss depends upon the roofing material. the minimum recommended rise of trusses with galvanised iron sheets is 1 in 6 and with asbestos cement sheets is 1 in 12.
96.

## The economic spacing of roof truss depends on

A. cost of purlins only
B. cost of purlins and cost of roof covering
Answer» B. cost of purlins and cost of roof covering
Explanation: the economic spacing of the truss is the spacing that makes the overall cost of trusses, purlins, roof coverings, columns, etc. the minimum. it depends upon the relative cost of trusses, purlins, roof coverings, spacing of columns, etc. if the spacing is large, the cost of these trusses per unit area decreases but the cost of purlin increases. but if the spacing of trusses is small, the cost of trusses per unit area increases. roof coverings cost more if the spacing of trusses is large.
97.

## Which of the following is true for economic spacing?

A. cost of trusses should be equal to twice the cost of purlins
B. cost of trusses should be equal to twice the cost of purlins minus cost of roof coverings
C. cost of trusses should be equal to the cost of purlins plus cost of roof coverings
D. cost of trusses should be equal to twice the cost of purlins plus cost of roof coverings
Answer» D. cost of trusses should be equal to twice the cost of purlins plus cost of roof coverings
Explanation: for economic spacing of roof trusses, the cost of trusses should be equal to twice the cost of purlins plus cost of roof coverings. this equation is used for checking the spacing of trusses and not for design of trusses.
98.

99.

## Live load for roof truss should not be less than

A. 0.4kn/m2
B. 0.2kn/m2
C. 0.75kn/m2
D. 0.8kn/m2
Explanation: the live load for roof truss should not be less than 0.4kn/m2. for roof slopes ≤ 10o and access provided, the live load to be taken is 1.5kn/m2 of plan area. for roof slopes > 10o and access is not provided , the live load to be taken is 0.75kn/m2 of plan area.
100.

## Simple connections are used to transmit

A. forces
B. moments
C. stresses
D. both force and moment