250+ Modern Social Theories Solved MCQs

1.

The book “ The Elementary Forms of Religious Life”was written by

A. Max Weber
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Auguste Comte
D. Max Weber
Answer» B. Emile Durkheim
2.

Which one of the following approaches mainly focuses on Consciousness

A. Ethnomethodology
B. Comparative method
C. Phenomenology
D. Functionlism
Answer» C. Phenomenology
3.

Looking glass Self theory was developed by

A. G.H.Mead
B. Erving Goffmn
C. C.H.Cooley
D. Alfred Schutz
Answer» C. C.H.Cooley
4.

Verstehen approach was developed by

A. Auguste Comte
B. Max Weber
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Robert K Merton
Answer» B. Max Weber
5.

Which of the following had profoundly conservative implications for early American sociology?

A. the French revolution
B. the Civil War
C. the Vietnam War
D. the political liberation of early Sociologists
Answer» D. the political liberation of early Sociologists
6.

According to Lester Ward, applied sociology was intended to:

A. use scientific knowledge to better society.
B. make sociology more scientific through lots of practice.
C. base sociology on common sense.
D. combat the evils of postmodernism.
Answer» A. use scientific knowledge to better society.
7.

Charles Horton Cooley is known for which of the following ideas?

A. class conflict
B. the looking-glass self
C. micro-macro integration
D. social solidarity
Answer» B. the looking-glass self
8.

______________ is the most important thinker associated with the Chicago school and symbolic interactionism.

A. Robert Merton
B. W.E.B. Du Bois
C. Thorstein Veblen
D. George Herbert Mead
Answer» D. George Herbert Mead
9.

Double-consciousness is a key theoretical idea of:

A. Jane Addams.
B. Anthony Giddens.
C. Alfred Schutz.
D. W.E.B. Du Bois.
Answer» D. W.E.B. Du Bois.
10.

Talcott Parsons is known as a(n):

A. structural-functionalist.
B. micro-macro structuralist.
C. . agency-structure determinist.
D. proponent of the Chicago School.
Answer» A. structural-functionalist.
11.

Who is the author of the book “ Protestant ethic and spirit of capitalism”

A. Max Weber
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Auguste Comte
D. Max Weber
Answer» A. Max Weber
12.

Erving Goffman was associated with

A. Ehnomethodology
B. Functionalism
C. Dramaturgy
D. neo-functionalism
Answer» C. Dramaturgy
13.

Name the author of the book” Mind, Self and Society”

A. G.H.Mead
B. Herbert Blumer
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Robert K Merton
Answer» A. G.H.Mead
14.

Which of the following sociological theorists is best known for his sociology of knowledge?

A. Karl Mannheim
B. Talcott Parsons
C. Lester Ward
D. Jeffrey Alexander
Answer» A. Karl Mannheim
15.

Which of the following thinkers is known as a radical sociologist?

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Talcott Parsons
C. George Homans
D. C. Wright Mills
Answer» D. C. Wright Mills
16.

Conflict theory emerged as a(n):

A. critique of feminist theory.
B. alternative to Anthony Giddens’s structuration theory.
C. Alternative to structural-functionalism.
D. critique of postmodernism.
Answer» C. Alternative to structural-functionalism.
17.

Exchange theory was pioneered by which of the following theorists?

A. . Talcott Parsons
B. Alfred Schutz
C. Lewis Coser
D. George Homans
Answer» D. George Homans
18.

Which of the following thinkers pioneered dramaturgical analysis?

A. . Charlotte Perkins Gilman
B. . Robert Park
C. . Karl Mannheim
D. . Erving Goffman
Answer» D. . Erving Goffman
19.

Alfred Schutz is known as a(n) _______________ sociologist.

A. .African-American
B. neo-Marxian
C. postmodern
D. phenomenological
Answer» D. phenomenological
20.

Ethnomethodology is known as a(n):

A. sociology of everyday life.
B. attack on phenomenology.
C. attack on Herbert Spencer.
D. fusion of Marx and Weber.
Answer» A. sociology of everyday life.
21.

___________ is considered the major representative of poststructuralism.

A. .Claude Lèvi-Strauss
B. .Jurgen Habermas
C. .Michel Foucault
D. .Richard Emerson
Answer» C. .Michel Foucault
22.

How does feminist theory look at the world?

A. .with great contempt
B. from the vantage points of women
C. .from the vantage points of deep structures of the mind
D. . from a mostly Freudian point of view
Answer» B. from the vantage points of women
23.

Which of the following theorists views modernity as an “unfinished project”?

A. Jurgen Habermas
B. Jeffrey Alexander
C. James Coleman
D. Jean Baudrillard
Answer» A. Jurgen Habermas
24.

Which of the following is NOT one of Talcott Parsons’s functional imperatives?

A. adaptation
B. integration
C. goal attainment
D. personality system
Answer» D. personality system
25.

In Talcott Parsons’s work, the behavioral organism handles the ___________function.

A. integrative
B. exploitative
C. reproductive
D. adaptation
Answer» D. adaptation
26.

Which of the following is NOT one of Talcott Parsons’s action systems?

A. the cultural system
B. the latent system
C. the social system
D. the personality system
Answer» B. the latent system
27.

The idea of dysfunction was put forward by

A. Robert K Merton
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Auguste Comte
D. Erving Goffman
Answer» A. Robert K Merton
28.

Which Sociologist developed the idea of pattern variables

A. Auguste Comte
B. Max Weber
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Robert K Merton
Answer» C. Talcott Parsons
29.

Name the author of the book “ The Structure of social action”

A. Auguste Comte
B. Max Weber
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Robert K Merton
Answer» C. Talcott Parsons
30.

The basic unit within Talcott Parsons’s social system is the:

A. allocative-integrative process.
B. hierarchy of conditioning factors.
C. status-role complex.
D. environment boundary maintenance.
Answer» C. status-role complex.
31.

For Parsons, the _________________ process helped to ensure that an actor’s pursuit of his/her own interests also served the interests of the system as a whole.

A. social control
B. exploitation
C. socialization
D. role
Answer» C. socialization
32.

Parsons argued that _____________ was the major binding force between various elements of the social world.

A. society
B. the economy
C. the fiduciary system
D. culture
Answer» D. culture
33.

The functionalist theory of stratification argues that:

A. stratification is functional for individuals.
B. it is functional for the best jobs to have very high rewards.
C. it is functional for the worst jobs to have the worst rewards.
D. stratification is functional for society as a whole.
Answer» D. stratification is functional for society as a whole.
34.

Unlike the structural functionalists, the neofunctionalists gave as much attention to _____________ as to order.

A. action
B. disorder
C. norms
D. roles
Answer» A. action
35.

Dahrendorf felt that authority rested with:

A. individuals.
B. organizations.
C. positions.
D. technology.
Answer» C. positions.
36.

consider a major influence on the development of neo-Marxian theory?

A. Emile Durkheim
B. Max Weber
C. Sigmund Freud
D. Michel Foucault
Answer» A. Emile Durkheim
37.

Unlike the critical school and the Hegelian Marxists, work in both Marxianinfluenced economic sociology and historical sociology focused on which of the following dimensions of Marx’s work?

A. cognitive
B. materialist
C. ideational
D. spatial
Answer» B. materialist
38.

According to some of the theorists of the critical school, domination moved from the economic to the ______________ sphere.

A. political
B. spatial
C. ecological
D. cultural
Answer» D. cultural
39.

The critical school offered critiques of which of the following two “industries”?

A. culture and manufacturing
B. knowledge and manufacturing
C. culture and knowledge
D. knowledge and communication
Answer» C. culture and knowledge
40.

For the critical school, modern society was rational, but not:

A. productive.
B. cultured.
C. reasonable.
D. predictable.
Answer» C. reasonable.
41.

In much the same way that Marx felt that labor was alienated, _________________ felt that communication was alienated, or distorted.

A. David Harvey
B. Immanuel Wallerstein
C. Jurgen Habermas
D. John Roemer
Answer» C. Jurgen Habermas
42.

Members of which of the following variants of Marxian theory most strongly distance themselves from their Marxian roots?

A. the critical school
B. Hegelian Marxism
C. historical Marxism
D. analytical Marxism
Answer» D. analytical Marxism
43.

Members of which of the following variants of neo-Marxian theory are concerned with the “micro-level” foundations of Marxian theory?

A. historical Marxism
B. analytical Marxism
C. Hegelian Marxism
D. critical theory
Answer» D. critical theory
44.

Thinkers who can be clearly identified as sociologists began to appear in the:

A. 1600s.
B. 1700s.
C. 1800s.
D. 1900s.
Answer» C. 1800s.
45.

In his lectures at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo in the 1300s, ____________ devoted considerable attention to social institutions such as politics and the economy.

A. Ibn-Khaldun
B. Saint-Simon
C. Sun Tzu
D. Tariq Ali
Answer» A. Ibn-Khaldun
46.

In 1789 the French Revolution caused many social thinkers to be disturbed by the resulting _________, and it created a desire to restore ______________.

A. democracy; the monarchy to power
B. regime change; the ancien regime
C. social dynamics; social statics to society
D. chaos; order to society
Answer» D. chaos; order to society
47.

Early sociologists wanted to model sociology after the prestigious and influential disciplines of:

A. economics, history, and philosophy.
B. physics, biology and chemistry.
C. anthropology, criminology, and psychology.
D. electrical, chemical, and civil engineering.
Answer» B. physics, biology and chemistry.
48.

The ____________ was a period of intellectual development and change characterized by the belief that people could comprehend and control the universe by means of reason and empirical research.

A. Renaissance
B. Industrial Revolution
C. Enlightenment
D. Golden Age
Answer» C. Enlightenment
49.

__________ believe in studying social phenomena using the same scientific techniques as those used in the natural sciences.

A. Logicians
B. Positivists
C. Pragmatists
D. Anglophiles
Answer» B. Positivists
50.

According to Auguste Comte, groups, societies, sciences, and individuals all go through the following three stages:

A. primary, secondary, and tertiary
B. primative, premodern, and modern
C. theological, metaphysical, and positivistic
D. feudal, capitalist, and socialist
Answer» C. theological, metaphysical, and positivistic
51.

Emile Durkheim believed that ___________ is not a necessary part of the modern world and that it could be reduced by ____________.

A. inequality; redistribution of wealth
B. deviance; education
C. religion; science
D. social disorder; social reform reformism.
Answer» D. social disorder; social reform reformism.
52.

G.W.F. Hegel’s philosophy of ___________ emphasized the importance of the mind and mental products rather than the material world.

A. monadism
B. spiritualism
C. idealism
D. utilitarianism
Answer» C. idealism
53.

_______ is the breakdown of the natural interconnection among people and between people and what they produce.

A. Trepidation
B. Alienation
C. Decomposition
D. Commodification
Answer» B. Alienation
54.

Weber was interested in the general issue of why institutions in the Western world had grown progressively more ____________ while power barriers seemed to prevent a similar development in the rest of the world.

A. rational
B. irrational
C. corrupt
D. powerful
Answer» A. rational
55.

Georg Simmel was best known for his thinking on:

A. large-scale social issues like capitalism and exploitation.
B. contemporary social problems like Anti-Semitism and racism.
C. smaller-scale issues like individual action and interaction.
D. interplanetary travel and extraterrestrial societies.
Answer» C. smaller-scale issues like individual action and interaction.
56.

Which of the following classical thinkers is credited for being the first to use the term “sociology”?

A. Karl Marx
B. Max Weber
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Auguste Comte
Answer» D. Auguste Comte
57.

Which of the following is NOT one of the strengths of systems theory?

A. its dynamism
B. its focus on processes
C. its multileveled approach
D. its complexity
Answer» D. its complexity
58.

A general principle of systems theory holds that ________ systems intervene between environments and the action of systems.

A. morphic
B. Delphic
C. mediating
D. purposive
Answer» C. mediating
59.

The notion of feedback enables theorists to deal with:

A. loud noises.
B. time-space elaboration.
C. friction, growth, and sudden changes in the environment.
D. magnetic hysterisis.
Answer» C. friction, growth, and sudden changes in the environment.
60.

George Herbert Mead’s work was influenced by which of the following two approaches?

A. positivism and pragmatism
B. behaviorism and pragmatism
C. positivism and behaviorism
D. behaviorism and biology
Answer» B. behaviorism and pragmatism
61.

Which of the following theorists coined the term symbolic interactionism?

A. Erving Goffman
B. Herbert Blumer
C. Georg Simmel
D. George Herbert Mead
Answer» B. Herbert Blumer
62.

In his work Mind, Self and Society, Mead gave priority to:

A. the self.
B. the mind.
C. society.
D. institutions.
Answer» C. society.
63.

Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic stages of what Mead calls “the act”?

A. impulse
B. perception
C. manipulation
D. significant symbols
Answer» D. significant symbols
64.

It is only through ___________ that language and human thinking are possible.

A. vocal gestures
B. impulses
C. physical gestures
D. significant symbols
Answer» D. significant symbols
65.

_____________ is the general mechanism for the development of the self.

A. Reflexivity
B. Gesture
C. Impulse
D. Human nature
Answer» A. Reflexivity
66.

Children learn to take the attitude of particular others to themselves during the ____________ stage.

A. game
B. social
C. primary
D. play
Answer» A. game
67.

Mead refers to the ability to take the attitude of the entire community into account as:

A. the generalized other.
B. impression management.
C. pragmatism.
D. the looking-glass self.
Answer» A. the generalized other.
68.

According to Mead, ____________ behavior is the thinking process, involving symbols and meanings.

A. overt
B. covert
C. front stage
D. back stage
Answer» B. covert
69.

_____________ refers to those things that tell us a performer’s social status, while ____________ tells the audience what sort of role a performer expects to play in a given situation.

A. Manner; appearance
B. Manner; scene
C. Appearance; manner
D. Appearance; scene
Answer» C. Appearance; manner
70.

The basic unit of analysis in Erving Goffman’s theory is:

A. the team.
B. the individual.
C. society.
D. the gesture.
Answer» A. the team.
71.

Social actors engage in the process of mystification in order to do all of the following EXCEPT:

A. generate social distance between themselves and their audience.
B. keep their audience from questioning their performance.
C. create a sense of awe in their audience.
D. become emotionally connected to their audience.
Answer» D. become emotionally connected to their audience.
72.

Which of the following statements correctly characterizes Goffman’s work later in his career?

A. Goffman became more cynical of social life.
B. Goffman focused more on small-scale structures.
C. Goffman defined action more as an active and creative process.
D. Goffman became convinced that dramaturgy was the best way to understand social life.
Answer» B. Goffman focused more on small-scale structures.
73.

Which of the following does NOT characterize Herbert Blumer’s theory of symbolic interactionism?

A. The essence of society is found in actors and action.
B. Society is made up of macro structures.
C. Large-scale structures emerge from micro processes.
D. Collective action gives rise to joint action.
Answer» B. Society is made up of macro structures.
74.

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of symbolic interactionism?

A. It has too readily given up on conventional scientific techniques.
B. It has downplayed large-scale social structures.
C. It has not been sufficiently microscopic.
D. It has concentrated too much on psychological factors.
Answer» D. It has concentrated too much on psychological factors.
75.

Cultural studies’ scholars argue that symbolic interactionism should focus more attention on:

A. communication technologies.
B. children.
C. consumption.
D. the Other.
Answer» A. communication technologies.
76.

According to ethnomethodologists, social actors use ____________ to accomplish their everyday lives.

A. formal logic
B. practical reasoning
C. empirical research
D. conscious processes
Answer» B. practical reasoning
77.

___________________ was the founder of ethnomethodology.

A. Erving Goffman
B. Max Weber
C. Herbert Blumer
D. Harold Garfinkel
Answer» D. Harold Garfinkel
78.

Which of the following is the term that ethnomethodologists use to describe the ways in which social actors explain specific situations?

A. accounts
B. hermenuetics
C. emotions
D. rituals
Answer» A. accounts
79.

Which of the following is NOT a working principle of conversation analysis?

A. Nonverbal behaviors are inconsequential to accomplishing a conversation.
B. The fundamental framework of a conversation is its sequential organization.
C. The collection and analysis of detailed data is critical to studying a conversation fully.
D. Conversations are managed on a turn-by-turn basis.
Answer» A. Nonverbal behaviors are inconsequential to accomplishing a conversation.
80.

With which of the following statements would an ethnomethodologist agree?

A. Gender is something that social actors are born with.
B. Gender is something that social actors accomplish.
C. Gender is not a significant variable to study, because it never changes.
D. Gender can be studied only through analyses of verbal conversations.
Answer» B. Gender is something that social actors accomplish.
81.

Which of the following do conversation analysts consider most important to study?

A. the relationship between speakers and hearers engaged in a conversation
B. the social context of a conversation
C. the relationships among utterances in a conversation
D. the motives of speakers and hearers engaged in a conversation
Answer» C. the relationships among utterances in a conversation
82.

How is laughter typically initiated in multiparty interactions?

A. by the speaker at the end of her utterance
B. by the speaker in the middle of one of her sentences
C. by the speaker in the beginning of her utterance
D. by someone other than the speaker
Answer» D. by someone other than the speaker
83.

During a political speech, a politician argues that “too much time is devoted to international policy...too little is spent on domestic policy.” This is an example of which of the following types of rhetorical devices used to generate applause?

A. contrast
B. list
C. headline-punch line
D. puzzle solution
Answer» A. contrast
84.

Which of the following is the most common type of rhetorical device used to generate applause?

A. pursuit
B. position taking
C. contrast
D. list
Answer» C. contrast
85.

According to conversation analysts, which of the following is typically true of disagreements?

A. They require no special explanation.
B. They are delayed responses.
C. They are produced in an unqualified manner.
D. They are followed by an apology.
Answer» B. They are delayed responses.
86.

____________ are defined as part of a conversation used to describe that conversation.

A. Accounts
B. Puzzle solutions
C. Setting-talks
D. Formulations
Answer» D. Formulations
87.

Shy people tend to engage in _____________ more often than those who are self-confident.

A. accounting
B. formulating
C. setting-talk
D. contrasting
Answer» C. setting-talk
88.

Which of the following is NOT something an interviewer would typically do to prevent an interviewee from returning to or correcting her question?

A. indicate that the interview is over
B. ask another question that moves the interview in an different direction
C. assess the answer given in a way that prevents the interviewee from returning to the question
D. engage in setting-talk
Answer» D. engage in setting-talk
89.

Conversation analysts have found that mishaps encountered during emergency telephone calls are a result of:

A. untrained dispatchers.
B. the caller’s irrational state of mind.
C. static over the phone lines.
D. the nature of the specific telephone conversation.
Answer» D. the nature of the specific telephone conversation.
90.

Ethnomethodologists are critical of traditional sociologists because the latter tend to:

A. rely too much on statistical analysis of data.
B. concentrate too much on everyday social practices.
C. focus on the real world rather than on the constructed wor
Answer» A. rely too much on statistical analysis of data.
91.

According to ethnomethodologists, conventional sociologists look at everyday speech as a(n):

A. resource.
B. formulation.
C. topic.
D. account.
Answer» A. resource.
92.

Ethnomethodology has been subject to criticism because it:

A. pays too much attention to the role of motives in social interaction.
B. has become too focused on its phenomenological roots.
C. has lost sight of its radical reflexivity.
D. dismisses structural properties of speech acts.
Answer» C. has lost sight of its radical reflexivity.
93.

In terms of the micro-macro debate, ethnomethodologists argue that:

A. micro-level phenomena are more important to study than macro-level structures.
B. micro and macro structures are generated simultaneously.
C. macro structures determine micro-level social interactions.
D. sociologists should stop attempting to make micro-macro linkages.
Answer» B. micro and macro structures are generated simultaneously.
94.

For Jeffrey Alexander, normative, non-rational, and affective actions constitute ____________ dimensions of his multidimensional sociology.

A. materialist
B. non-material
C. macro
D. micro
Answer» B. non-material
95.

Alexander believed that according privilege to the ________________ level was a “theoretical mistake.”

A. micro
B. macro
C. subjective
D. objective
Answer» A. micro
96.

George Ritzer’s attempts at an integrated sociological paradigm can be differentiated from Alexander’s multidimensional sociology because:

A. Alexander does not use an equivalent objective-subjective continuum.
B. Alexander does not use an equivalent micro-macro continuum.
C. Alexander privileges one level over another.
D. Alexander’s dimensions are either/or, not continuums.
Answer» C. Alexander privileges one level over another.
97.

Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic ways to describe macro phenomena?

A. aggregation
B. structural
C. integrative
D. global
Answer» C. integrative
98.

Randall Collins’s “interactional ritual chains” are an example of focusing on the _____________ level of analysis.

A. micro
B. macro
C. meso
D. system
Answer» A. micro
99.

For Anthony Giddens, social structure is composed of:

A. the objective positions within a field.
B. networks of exchange relations.
C. systems of oppression and domination.
D. the structuring properties of rules and resources.
Answer» D. the structuring properties of rules and resources.
100.

_____________ consciousness entails the ability to describe our actions in words, whereas ___________ consciousness involves actions that the actors take for granted without being able to express what they are doing.

A. Discursive; practical
B. Practical; discursive
C. Discursive; su
D. Oral; practical
Answer» A. Discursive; practical
Tags
Question and answers in Modern Social Theories, Modern Social Theories multiple choice questions and answers, Modern Social Theories Important MCQs, Solved MCQs for Modern Social Theories, Modern Social Theories MCQs with answers PDF download